According to criminal law, crimes are offences against the social order. Both socialism and communism are essentially economic philosophies advocating public rather than private ownership, especially of the means of production, distribution and exchange of goods (i.e., making money) in a society. Both aim to fix the problems they see as created by a free-market capitalist system, including the exploitation of workers and a widening gulf between rich and poor. In any case, I strongly agree with you that racism remains pervasive in American society. The economic, educational, and social oppression of black people is systemic, and they are particularly victimized by the criminal justice system. As a part of our history, they are greatly sought after by American shooters and collectors. Governments can, if they wish, eliminate certain groups or individuals who, in their opinion, oppose and are hostile to their policies. The elimination of a terrorist or a political opponent is as easy to achieve as it is easy to hide from the public. The death or disappearance of such people is explained under categories such as natural causes, accidents, mental hospitalization or death during emergency surgery. Germany emerged from World War I with huge debts incurred to finance a costly war for almost five years. The treasury was empty, the currency was losing value, and Germany needed to pay its war debts and the huge reparations bill imposed on it by the Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended the war. The treaty also deprived Germany of territory, natural resources, and even ships, trains, and factory equipment. Her population was undernourished and contained many impoverished widows, orphans, and disabled veterans. The new German government struggled to deal with these crises, which had produced a serious hyperinflation. By 1924, after years of crisis management and attempts at tax and finance reform, the economy was stabilized with the help of foreign, particularly American, loans. A period of relative prosperity prevailed from 1924 to 1929. This relative “golden age” was reflected in the strong support for moderate pro-Weimar political parties in the 1928 elections. However, economic disaster struck with the onset of the world depression in 1929. The American stock market crash and bank failures led to a recall of American loans to Germany. This development added to Germany’s economic hardship. Mass unemployment and suffering followed. Many Germans became increasingly disillusioned with the Weimar Republic and began to turn toward radical anti-democratic parties whose representatives promised to relieve their economic hardships.

There is a National Labour Migration Policy that guides Sri Lankan emigration for employment in other countries. The policy includes strategies for how to harness the benefits of labour migration to help accelerate development in Sri Lanka, while protecting migrant workers’ rights and well-being. Whereas Marxist historians such as ethno-historian Tom Porter have argued that the IBSM played a major role in the loss of traditional Haudenosaunee women’s roles, the facts and statistics presented by primary source documents published before, during, and after the IBSM era have shown the minimal impact of IBSM on the political, spiritual, and social roles of Haudenosaunee women within their communities.Whereas European American women were engaged in the struggle for equal rights during the IBSM, Haudenosaunee women appear to have retained much of their traditional station despite Euro-American attempts at forced assimilation of Native Americans through religiously based educational institutions. As shown through marriage practices of the Haudenosaunee surrounding the IBSM, Haudenosaunee women retained the power to divorce their husbands as well as own property even as European-American women were denied such rights during the same period. 18 Haudenosaunee women also retained custody of their children, whereas the European-American society into which the Haudenosaunee were to be assimilated through the IBSM denied women custody of their own children and placed that title with the husband. 19 Haudenosaunee women retained not only their use of the Haudenosaunee language and their vocational positions as agriculturalists; they retained their political authority in Haudenosaunee communities following the IBSM. As shown through such sources as the New York State Museum Bulletin of 1916, 20 Haudenosaunee women retained their suffrage despite attempts by the United States Government to impose a patriarchic society in which women would have minimal political power through civic education of the IBSM. Competent Witness – Every person is considered competent to be a witness. When a party questions the competency of a witness, the judge must determine the witness’s capacity to observe, recall, and communicate what he or she witnessed, and that the witness understands the duty to be truthful. Hung Jury – A jury that cannot agree upon a verdict after a suitable period of deliberation, resulting in a mistrial of the case. In criminal cases, a hung jury allows the prosecution to try the defendant again without violating constitutional protections against double jeopardy.

In the late 18th century, the invention of the steam engine powered the Industrial Revolution , which brought sweeping economic and social change first to Great Britain, then to the rest of the world. Factory owners became wealthy, while many workers lived in increasing poverty , laboring for long hours under difficult and sometimes dangerous conditions. The judicial authority of the Republic vests in the courts. The courts are independent, impartial and subject only to the South African Constitution and the law. No person or organ of state may interfere with the functioning of the court. The state must assist and protect the courts through legislative and other measures to ensure their independence, impartiality, dignity, accessibility and effectiveness. The President by Proclamation (31 March 1995) appointed a commission of inquiry (Hoexter Commission), chaired by the Honourable Mr Justice Hoexter, to investigate the rationalisation of all jurisdictional areas and court structures of the High Court. The first incorrect assumption you make is the fact that anyone had to be bailed out. Why exactly? When Lehman Brothers fell, the world didn’t end. The would wouldn’t have ended if AIG failed either. What happened was that big business called in all the favors they had, which were considerable in order to get the bailout to save themselves from their stupidity. But the government couldn’t come out and say that, so they relied on the scare tactic of telling people the whole thing was going to come apart if something wasn’t done. They capitalized on the average American’s ignorance of economics and got away with the swindle of the century. Pawel Jan Rogalski – alias ‘Pawel’. Born 18th August 1908 in Warsaw. Before WWII worked in Ostatnie WiadomoÅ›ci (Last News) paper. In 1924 one of editors of socialist paper Nowy Zew (New Call). From 1926 student of political and social sciences faculty in Free Polish University. Also from that year involved in self-education anarchist group of Benjamin Wolman. From 1927 member of Anarchist Federation of Poland, comrade of Jerzy Borejsza. Worked in underground printing house Walka (Struggle). In 1929 arrested in Warsaw for participating in a celebration of Peter Kropotkin. In 1930 emigrated to France where he worked as workman and studied in the Sorbonne. In 1932 returned to Poland. During WWII he was hidden himself and help others to hide. In October 1939 together with Roman Jablonowski (before the war member of Communist Party of Poland, then close to syndicalists, activist and last leader of ‘Zegota’ (Council for Aid to Jews) initiated socialist resistance group. In August 1942 escaped from Warsaw ghetto. During Warsaw Uprising arrested together with his family by the SS Division Galizien. He escaped again. To the end of occupation he was hidden in Nadarzyn. In January 1947 invited by Rose Pesotta (union activist and member of anarchist group publishing Freie Arbeiter Shtimme Yiddish language paper, who visited Poland in 1946) Rogalski went to the USA. There he gave a series of lectures about Warsaw ghetto and Warsaw Uprising. After his return to Poland was interrogated by Urzad Bezpieczenstwa (Public Security – secret police). In 1946 with other anarchists and Roman Jablonowski opened Spoldzielczy Instytut Wydawniczy ‘Slowo’ (Cooperative Publishers Institute ‘Word’) where among others, books by Peter Kropotkin were printed. Cooperative was stigmatised by Central Committee of Polish Workers Party (Communists) and was forced to close in 1949. From 1949 until retirement Rogalski worked in ‘Ksiazka i Wiedza’ (‘Book and Knowledge’) publishing house. Died in 16 March 1993 in Warsaw. He asked to engrave: ‘Militant of Anarchist Federation of Poland’ on his tombstone.

The only type of civil contempt the magistrates’ court can deal with is the unauthorised use of disclosed prosecution material under s.17 of the Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996. The maximum penalty the magistrates’ court can impose for this is 6 months’ imprisonment or a fine up to £5,000. Civil law in other European nations, on the other hand, is generally traced back to the code of laws compiled by the Roman Emperor Justinian around 600 C.E. Authoritative legal codes with roots in these laws (or others) then developed over many centuries in various countries, leading to similar legal systems, each with their own sets of laws. Locus standi: (Latin: place of standing) Person’s right to take an action or be heard by a court. The public will only achieve true freedom when social and economic inequalities are minimized. All citizens within a Unitary State should have equal rights. Heck, I voted for Republicans before I noticed changes which were disturbing. R.R. put Powell as head of the Joint Chiefs, for goodness sake. But overtime, the admission to leadership post in the military has not been available to Blacks on a regular basis according to some newspaper articles I read. In defense of our Armed Services, they are naming an aircraft carrier after Doris James, a seaman of color who defended Pearl Harbor. And they are making more changes. Good for them. Many American socialists of the turn of the twentieth century fit into a radically democratic, republican framework. As Nick Salvatore has argued, the socialism of the most revered leader of American socialists at the time, Eugene V. Debs, can be embedded within it. Salvatore aptly titled his authoritative 1982 biography Eugene V. Debs: Citizen and Socialist , for Debs was a socialist who put democratic citizenship and republican liberty first. By contrast to the statutory codifications of common law, some laws are purely statutory, and may create a new cause of action beyond the common law. An example is the tort of wrongful death, which allows certain persons, usually a spouse, child or estate, to sue for damages on behalf of the deceased. There is no such tort in English common law; thus, any jurisdiction that lacks a wrongful death statute will not allow a lawsuit for the wrongful death of a loved one. Where a wrongful death statute exists, the damages or compensation available are limited to those outlined in the statute (typically, an upper limit on the amount of damages). Courts generally interpret statutes that create new causes of action narrowly – that is, limited to their precise terms – because the courts generally recognize the legislature as being supreme in deciding the reach of judge made law unless such statute should violate some “second order” constitutional law provision (compare judicial activism).