Running an office is not small job. A new law on foreign direct investment improved conditions for foreign investors by offering major protection of foreign partners’ ownership and management rights, and abolishing the limits on the share of foreign ownership in firms. Three laws in 1989 introduced major changes in the banking system: the banking law transformed banks from non-profit institutions into joint-stock and limited liability banks; the law on securities introduced for the first time equity shares in the Yugoslav legal system; and the Law on the money and capital markets officially sanctioned the creation of a capital market. Drawing inspiration from Kevin Morgan’s recent study of trade unionist A.A. Purcell, this article analyses the activist commitment of Durham miner Henry Bolton; his changing ideology, and how this informed his political interventions in numerous contexts and through multifarious institutions and positions. Beginning his political journey as a Methodist and Liberal before converting to socialism, Bolton was particularly significant as a key example of a neglected but undoubtedly significant phenomenon; an influential left Labour Party activist whose politics were largely indistinguishable from that of Communists but who was only actually a party member (open or otherwise) for a very short period. Bolton’s causes were numerous and interlinking. Working through the union, Labour Party and local council he advanced the interests of the miners and their communities, controversially harnessing the resources of the council itself during the 1926 general strike and lockout (he remained under long-term police surveillance). A firm believer in working-class education, Bolton was a leading figure in the regional Labour college movement and founder of a Socialist Sunday School branch. The latter formed the nucleus for local conscientious objectors during the Great War. In the 1930s, Bolton used his positions in both the council and region-wide peace council to propagandise on foreign affairs, including supporting the Spanish Republic. Studying Bolton’s activist life throws considerable light on the complex and diverse political culture of the British left, richly demonstrating the vast number of different ways in which an activist could intervene in the political world, and the complexities of the ideologies on the Labour left. Human Rights postulate, therefore, the attitude on the part of the people that would enable them to blend the fine values of the past with the fine elements from contemporary world, wherever good things could be absorbed. They would be embedded in the basic structure of the constitution as rights to be enjoyed by the people. The following are indispensable in the domain of rights.
Note 58: R.J. Rummel, for example, claims that libertarian states, which tend to be more democratic than others, are less likely to resort to international violence. Such states will at least inflict fewer casualties in wars, even if they go to war as often as other types of states. See Rummel, “Libertarianism and International Violence,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 27, No. 1 (March 1983), pp. 27-71; and Rummel, “Democracies ARE Less Warlike Than Other Regimes,” European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 1, No. 4 (December 1995), pp. 457-479. Some studies find that disputes between democracies and nondemocracies are less likely to escalate to war that disputes between nondemocracies, See Zeev Maoz and Nasrin Abdolai, “Regime Types and International Conflict, 1817-1976,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 33, No. 1 (March 1989), pp. 3-35. For a reconsideration of the claim that democracies are as war-prone as other types of states, see James Lee Ray, Democracy and International Conflict: An Evaluation of the Democratic Peace Proposition (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995), pp. 17-21. When lawyers seek to use the law to punish people that they feel are causing injustices or doing something that they feel is not right, they use their power as a lawyer almost like a policeman uses their badge to enforce the law. But lawyers are not policeman and they are not marshals. This is activism, and these lawyers when they become judges or politicians are really problematic to our society. Trial – Examination of any issue of fact or law before a competent court to determine the rights of the parties. In 1929, Stalin instituted full governmental control to central plan the entire national economy. He ensured the Russian people that construction of socialismâ€ would greatly improve living standards. But living standards dropped precipitously, to less than 10% of what they were, within five years. Since all workers were paid the same wages regardless of effort and competence, effort nearly ceased and the unqualified had no incentive to acquire new skills. Charge to Jury – The final address by a judge to a jury instructing the jury as to the law relevant to a case and how the law must be applied. The charge is given immediately before the jury retires to deliberate on a verdict. Since the handover, an election committee composed of representatives from Hong Kong’s main professional sectors PDF has selected chief executives. Today, these 1,200 members come from a range of societal groupings: the industrial, commercial, and financial sectors; other professional sectors, including higher education and engineering; labor, social service, and religious groups; and Hong Kong political bodies. All changes to political processes have to be approved by the Hong Kong government and China’s National People’s Congress.
provisional remedy: A temporary court order to protect someone from further or irreparable damage while further legal action is pending. For example, a temporary restraining order is a provisional remedy to help keep someone safe until a hearing to decide if a permanent restraining order is needed; likewise, a temporary injunction to stop the destruction of a building can keep it from being destroyed while the court decides whether it is a landmark. In Canada, the word “lawyer” only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec , have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called “barristers and solicitors”, but should not be referred to as “attorneys”, since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney However, in Quebec, civil law advocates (or avocats in French ) often call themselves “attorney” and sometimes “barrister and solicitor” in English, and all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practicing in French, are addressed with the honorific title, “Me.” or ” MaÃ®tre “. In other words, the economic crisis poses two major social threats to the national securityâ€ (i.e., imperial status) of the United States. Of key importance is that America and other western nations may lose control of their colonial possessions and interests in the developing world – Africa, South America and Asia – as the people in those regions, the most politically awakenedâ€ in the world, can cause regime-threatening instabilityâ€ as the prospects of riots, rebellion and revolution expose the failure of their national leaders and governance structures. When President Fidel Ramos started his administration in 1992, the country had already started feeling the effects of power supply deficiencies, with major areas already experiencing power interruptions. The power crisis caused a slowdown in the national economy for nearly three years and prodded the government to initiate major reforms in order to rehabilitate the energy sector (Viray 1998, p.461-90). In response to a power supply crisis, Ramos revived the plans to liberalize the oil industry that were cut short during the Aquino administration due to Gulf crisis. In its purest form, Communism refers to the idea of common, public ownership of the economy, including infrastructure, utilities, and means of production. Communism, as idealized by thinkers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, denotes an absence of class divisions, which inherently requires the subversion of the ruling class by the working class. As such, communism often incorporates the idea of revolutionary action against unequal rule. Communism often positions itself as a counterpoint to the economic stratification underlying capitalism. This resistance to stratification sometimes also takes the form of a single-state authority, one in which political opposition or dissidence may be restricted. This may manifest in some communist states as a more authoritarian form of governance, as typified by the Soviet brand of communism that swept the globe during the mid-20th century.
Indonesia is marred with corruption as if it has become part of the “culture”. Indonesia ranks 34th by the 2014 World Corruption Perception Index. It’s even below some African countries such as Nigeria, Zambia and Trinidad. If you compare that to Denmark, which was ranked number 1 as a nation with the lowest perception of corruption, Indonesia still has a long way to go. There is almost zero confidence among the public for government officials and law-makers. On a brighter note though, Governor Basuki has somewhat shown progress in eradicating corruption via the use of innovative technological ideas, transparency and bureaucracy overhaul (see my previous article, “Jakarta Governor Basuki T.Purnama and His Social Programs”). Lenin defined himself as a Socialist until he seized power in Russia, after which he was a self-described Communist. Each person in such a society would provide the commonweal according to their ability; and each person will be supplied according to their needs. The optimistic positivism of structuralism’s collectivistic goals, along with many individuals’ faith in the paradigm of social structures referred to as Modernismâ€, were thrown into question by the political and social events of the 20th century: â€¦the great impact of the Second World War in France elevated issues of politics and ethical responsibility arising from questions about humanism, the self, and power.â€ (Silva 2012:564). People began to question the assumptions that were believed to have caused the widespread injustices and inequalities which were becoming associated with Modernism. Among those who were eventually defined as Post Structuralists, the individuals who began in the 1960’s to attack Structuralism’s basic tenets had themselves previously been included among the coterie of Structuralists, including Foucault, Derrida, Althusser, and Pierre Bourdieu (Deleuze 2002:170-192). Joining in the siege of Structuralism were such notable intellectuals as literary critic Roland Barthes, among others (Lavers 1982). Though some proponents of Structuralism remain, exemplified by the work of Jacques Lacan, the dominant trend in the French intellectual establishment from the 1960’s onward was reacting against such universalizing meta-narrativesâ€, and that trend was called Post Structuralism. Whatever system we have of governing ourselves, has become a costly one. That is because, governing ourselves, the one that does not directly make any value addition to our society, in fact takes a lion’s share of the efforts, both from the side of government and from the side of citizens. Such a complex structure came into existence when the task of governance was simpler and more straight-forward. In the early society, where neither there was the need nor the people had the intent, or the opportunities, of gainful occupation, activities of governance were perceived as something welcome, as well as necessary.