The transformation of the very content of the concept of security, whose formulation was based on the analysis of safety risks and forms of threats to security of the people, property and the state as a whole, began internationally after the end of the Cold War. 2.55 It is often said that victims want justice. But justice is a contested and contextual concept, shaped at a community level by culture, history, geography and resources, and at the individual level by the experiences, social situation and personalities of the people involved. 89 Justice means different things to different people. Interpleader – An action in which a third person asks the Court to determine the rights of others to property held—but not owned—by the third person. Traders at Northern Arizona University: on the United Indian Traders Association, a non-profit organization dedicated to ensuring the authenticity of Native American arts and crafts. While international law is unlikely to be a substantial source of hard law obligations in the field of addiction treatment, it has greater potential as a source of normative criteria and guidance. Both the hard and soft law dimensions of international law provide resources to help frame legal and policy questions and to help shape normative criteria for legal action. In a legal system that is generally hostile to international influences as a source of law, and where the hard law guidance on demand-side issues is so anemic, it may be more strategic to employ international law in a supporting role. Particularly where Article 14 of the 1988 convention calls for states to consider the guidelines and recommendations of the international organizations like the WHO, the stage could be set for demonstrating the relevance of the wide array of WHO soft law initiatives detailed earlier. A similar function could be played by lawyers in shaping forensic testimony. Law is necessarily bounded by the geography of nation states in ways that science is not. There is substantially more flexibility in the legal system when it comes to discretionary aspects of legal questions, or in the law’s necessary deference to other sources of professional expertise. A lawyer who is well-versed in the soft law world of the policies and recommendations of the WHO on issues of addiction is in a much better position to envision creative roles for forensic experts. Ex aequo et bono: (Latin: in justice and fairness) Most legal cases are decided on the strict rule of law. But, where a case is decided ex aequo et bono, the judge may make a decision based on what is just and fair in the circumstances. The Revolution restored their fundamental rights and freedoms to the people of Portugal. In the exercise of those rights and freedoms, the people’s legitimate representatives are gathered to draw up a Constitution that matches the country’s aspirations.

1.8.6 With the increased internationalisation of legal services, legal education in Singapore has placed greater emphasis on the need for law undergraduates to acquire knowledge of and exposure to foreign legal systems and international law. To ensure that Singapore lawyers keep abreast of significant legal developments, a Mandatory Continuing Professional Development scheme applies to newly-qualified lawyers as well as senior lawyers. The Government also reviews the supply of lawyers periodically to ensure that the supply of lawyers meets the growing demand for legal talent. Generally speaking, a bad childhood says to trigger one’s criminal instincts. But we should all consider that the term “bad childhood” is relative and that it differs from one person to another. Bad childhood could be in the form of child abuse, consequences of being in a broken home or the act of child labor. It has different faces, and not all of them result to performance of the worst criminal law offences in history. In fact, some children who have such experience essentially strive to become different people – so different from their ugly pasts. However, when it is consistently fed with multiple misfortunes and discomfort, the worst thing could happen. Watkins as I promised you, I read your attached hub in one of my HP’s articles this is a very interesting narrative about the Progressive Movement, which I find one of the most interesting periods of American modern history. Your argument is very clear, and I do respect your point of view, but on the other hand, the so-called Progressive Movements, needs to be understood in the context of US social, economic, political and discursive context of the late nineteenth and early 20th century. (Maybe a Hub is needed to analyze them, they are to complex to deal with them here). Also, it is important to notice, that the PM was a series of reformist impulses that covered a wide range of complex and immediate issues, hence, “Progressives” many times differed and clashed in their strategies. Even though your article is very well articulated, IMH and respectful opinion, it needs more depth in terms of the historical context of the PM, and thus a more nuanced analysis. Take care, and thanks for sharing your very well written article with me. She directed the National Council of Negro Women for 40 years beginning in 1957 and continued serving that organization after her retirement from the post. She never stopped. She began her work by participating in anti-lynching protests and voter registrations at a teen and then as a social worker, became an executive of the YWCA and a founder of its Center for Racial Justice, welcoming its racial intergation in the 1940s. She aided the beginnings of the National Women’s Political Caucus in 1971.

Socialism is a deliberate organization of the labors of society to achieve social goals. It wants to organize the whole of society and all its resources, and refuses to recognize autonomy of individuals. This is totalitarianism de facto. The 1880s in America, particularly in Chicago, was a period of intensive labour struggle. Workers were campaigning for the 8-hour day, organising big labour protests, and these were put down with incredible violence by private Pinkerton armies, which employers hired and deployed against workers. Anarchist groups were very active in Chicago. There had been an influx of German immigrants wanting to escape the Old World and to find space for themselves in the New, only to discover that they weren’t that different in terms of repression. A lot of them had been through the Paris Commune and the unification of Germany; they had seen the rise of the State, and the ways in which education was being extended in nefarious ways. They came into an American context and discovered that America was not the land of the free.” So they started organising themselves, particularly around the 8-hour-day movement. By emphasizing individualism and personal gain, capitalism tends to breed market concentration and a long series of abuses, as the Great Recession clearly showed. Individuals and corporations are continuously tempted to evade or to use loopholes in the law. The financial sector is particularly prone to this type of behavior, since it allows market participants to reap gains not only by producing services that people need but also by the clever manipulation of financial engineering.” More often than not, such creativeness produces nothing of value for society; rather, it often engenders conditions that create financial crises down the road. For Europe, yes with Democratic Socialism, everything is ‘fine’. And any of what you might consider to be a ‘Problem’ (dependent on your political beliefs) with democratic socialism isn’t any greater than what a Socialist would consider ‘Problems’ with ‘Conservative’ (Capitalist) Governments (often just the flip side of the same argument). Another notable feminist intellectual of the left, Naomi Wolf, who wrote a book during the Bush administration on the emergence of fascism in America, and much of her message is being picked up by the Tea Party movement, as those on the right who were listening and agreeing with Wolf during the Bush administration (a considerable minority), then provided the impetus for the emergence of the Tea Party movement and many of its core or original ideas.

Of course in socialism, there is always a ruling class making the decisions for what they feel is best for the collective constituents as a whole, reducing or eliminating natural individual rights. In the ‘republican’ system of government, personal rights are paramount under our Constitution. Incidentally, the U.S. is going through the same thing with outsourced jobs and all that. People are trying to compensate by getting all kinds of degrees – there are some “entry level” jobs now that require four years experience, I don’t get it either – but the problem is that we haven’t been keeping up on our politics. We have megacorporations widening their profit margins, and carting jobs overseas because that’s cheaper for them to do – and nobody’s holding their feet to the fire. They’ve grown used to these huge profits, and like a cocaine addict they want more, more more! They’ve become used to compromising their ethical standards for those profits, and as the infrastructure of other countries develops, they don’t think twice about ditching us for a quick buck. And we let them develop that bloated sense of egotism, infidelity and self-interest at all costs. Us! By not paying attention, by not keeping them accountable in the first place, and by not taking consumer actions – when was the last time you heard the word “boycott”? How many years ago? We don’t have our politicians on a leash either, so tariffs against countries who are being gifted all of our jobs should be given a look-in. But we haven’t been paying attention as a society, and we’re paying the price. Our infrastructure is going down, because we’re not making enough. These other countries the corps are setting up shop in are finding all kinds of unethical practices by the corps, who find that these countries will take it because they need to money. And as things get worse, our government is about to turn on us the same way our corporations have – and for essentially the same reasons. Nolo Contendere : It means “no contest”. A plea in a criminal case that allows the defendant to be convicted without admitting guilt for the crime charged. Although a finding of guilty is entered on the criminal court record; the defendant can deny the charges in a civil action based on the same acts. Socialism in the United States is prominent in a way it hasn’t been in decades. High-profile left-leaning politicians like Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) and Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.) hold up socialist policies as solutions to the ills facing the nation, from the growing political influence of the top 1 percent” to the lack of universal health care. Meanwhile, critics, including President Trump, say socialism leads inexorably to tyranny and poverty. But the important debate is clouded by many misconceptions.

A debt that cannot be eliminated in bankruptcy. Examples include a home mortgage, debts for alimony or child support, certain taxes, debts for most government funded or guaranteed educational loans or benefit overpayments, debts arising from death or personal injury caused by driving while intoxicated or under the influence of drugs, and debts for restitution or a criminal fine included in a sentence on the debtor’s conviction of a crime. Some debts, such as debts for money or property obtained by false pretenses and debts for fraud or defalcation while acting in a fiduciary capacity may be declared nondischargeable only if a creditor timely files and prevails in a nondischargeability action. This cell phone hub is highly informative and it definitely deserved to earn you the hub of the day Melovy, and I know it was a long time coming for sure. Usually, lawyers concentrate on a certain practice area: taxation or intellectual property, some practice public interest law, for example working to protect the environment. Generally, geographic limitations can be troublesome for a lawyer who discovers that his client’s cause requires him to litigate in a court beyond the normal geographic scope of his license. Although most courts have special pro hac vice rules for such occasions, the lawyer will still have to deal with a different set of professional responsibility rules, as well as the possibility of other differences in substantive and procedural law. Latin, meaning in a judge’s chambers. Often means outside the presence of a jury and the public. In private. Rule by majority. In a democracy, an individual, and any group of individuals composing any minority, have no protection against the power of the majority. In variations, people may also elect representatives. Degree of proof required. In criminal cases, prosecutors must prove a defendant’s guilt “beyond a reasonable doubt.” The majority of civil lawsuits require proof “by a preponderance of the evidence” (50 percent plus), but in some the standard is higher and requires “clear and convincing” proof. Portugal is a sovereign Republic, based on the dignity of the human person and the will of the people and committed to building a free, just and solidary society. Neither country is ruled by a monarch so the definition holds. Both are republics. Further, following World War II, America was handed the responsibility for overseeing and managing the international monetary system and global political economy through the creation of institutions and agreements such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), NATO, the UN, and GATT (later to become the World Trade Organization – WTO).