Criminal law or penal law is the body of law that relates to crime and punishment. Informed by the philosophical ideals of the enlightenment, particularly the writing of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the revolutionaries who toppled the French monarchy in the 1790s established a new republic in their wake. Though the République française was short-lived — Napoleon’s rule transformed France into an aristocracy by the turn of the next century — its founding on the principles of Rousseau’s Social Contract would be particularly influential to the myriad nations soon to emerge from crumbling European monarchies and splintering colonial empires. This is not to say that I believe democracy is dead within the USA, I believe that it is alive and thriving,for example take President Obama’s health reforms whether they are the right or wrong course of action does not matter, the fact is that they are an act of democracy. The USA was the first true democratic republic and its democracy is thriving still today. As a neutral participant (I’m British) I think it is important to mention this. Catholics and Jews both benefited from the founding of the Weimar Republic. Catholics entered the government in leadership positions, and Jews participated actively in Weimar cultural life. Many Protestant clergymen resented the loss of their privileged status. While many slowly accepted the new Republic, others were never reconciled to it. Both Protestant and Catholic clergy were suspicious of the Socialists who were a part of the ruling group in Weimar and who often voiced Marxist hostility toward religion. Conflicts over religion and education and religion and gender policies were often intense during the Weimar years. The growth of the Communist Party in Germany alarmed Protestant and Catholic clergy, and the strong support the Catholic Center Political Party had given to the Republic weakened in the last years of the Republic. While Jews had unprecedented opportunities during the Weimar period, their accomplishments and increased visibility added resentment to long-standing prejudices and hatreds and fueled a growing antisemitism. Charles James- Your comments make good sense. Health care is surely a problem in the USA. What is objected to is Obamacare. Most of us feel that the problems here have largely been caused by the government to begin with. The government runs Medicare and Medicare, which combined have $100B per year of fraud. So, we don’t see the sense in giving them a $17T program to run when they do such a lousy job with a $660B program. The problems here are massive lawsuits, which cause malpractice insurance to cost some doctors $80,000 per year, and far worse, makes doctors order millions of unnecessary (and invasion and painful) tests and procedures to keep from being sued; that insurance companies are not allowed to compete across state lines, greatly reducing competition; and that the government sets the price of over 800 medical procedures, thus enterfering with the free market. In addition, costs are driven up by terrible diet and lack of exercise, combined with exploding technologies, which will keep the sickest people alive, but at tremendous cost. Having the government take over is not about sick people, but about power and control in the hands of the central government. We don’t want that.
Bail Commissioner : A state-appointed person who may set the amount of bond for persons detained at a police station prior to arraignment in court, and who recommends to the court the amount of bond that should be set for the defendant on each criminal case. Starting in 1998, the hunt for Osama Bin Laden – militant Islamic leader of al-Qaida, was an extremely long and costly search that seemed to go nowhere. In fact, the lack of any evidence as to the location of Bin Laden often led the FBI to question whether or not he was even still alive. But with no body found, and the knowledge that he posed a huge threat to the safety of the American public kept the searching going for years and years. Limited political pluralism: For example, a One Party System divided into two sides” called Republican and Democratic to give the illusion of choice. Reasonable doubt – Generally in a criminal case, an accused person is entitled to acquittal if, in the minds of the jury, his or her guilt has not been proved beyond a reasonable doubt. Common law is law that is derived from judicial decisions instead of from statutes American courts originally fashioned common law rules based on English common law until the American legal system was sufficiently mature to create common law rules either from direct precedent or by analogy to comparable areas of decided law. In the 2019 Supreme Court case of Gamble v. United States, Justice Thomas issued a concurring opinion discussing common law and, in particular, the role of stare decises in a common law system. Though most common law is found at the state level, there is a limited body of federal common law-that is, rules created and applied by federal courts absent any controlling federal statute. In the 2020 Supreme Court opinion Rodriguez v. FDIC , a unanimous Court quoted an earlier decision to explain that federal “common lawmaking must be ‘necessary to protect uniquely federal interests'” in striking down a federal common law rule addressing the distribution of corporate tax refunds. Rippln Exec Jonathan Budd had stated on BehindMLM:.none of those in app purchases are tracked back to the people who shared them. The people who drive the marketing for these companies… do not get rewarded for the value they are creating in the marketplace. Scheltema-Kleefstra, Annie Adama van (1884-1977) – librarian at the International Institute for Social History (IISH) in Amsterdam, she wrote to EG, June 15, 1938, inviting AB’s papers and EG-AB correspondence to be stored at IISH.
Small Claims : Civil actions to recover damages, or money, up to $ rules of evidence are relaxed and people often represent themselves instead of hiring an attorney. Early socialists like Henri de Saint-Simon, Robert Owen and Charles Fourier offered up their own models for social organization based on cooperation rather than competition. While Saint-Simon argued for a system where the state controls production and distribution for the benefit of all society’s members, both Fourier and Owen (in France and Britain, respectively) proposed systems based on small collective communities, not a centralized state. You are right that only 44 house democrats – of 233” signed their names to the New Way Forward – so far. They include the chief spokesperson of your party: AOC. I did not say the bill had passed or had majority support yet. Just the fact that it was signed by 44 members of the United States Congress ought to be a warning to my fellow countrymen. These people have been elected to very high public office. This is what they believe. I honestly don’t know what I’m going to do. I like Obama and will vote for him. I know his ideas are not radical compared to yours, but I do trust he will make serious reforms if elected. Whether or not he will be elected, and what the country will look like if he isn’t, these are scary questions. Right now I’m appalled but it’s not like I’m wielding all this power all by myself. I can write about it though. I can do that much. Note 28: R.J. Rummel, Power Kills: Democracy as a Method of Nonviolence (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1997), pp. 87-88. Rummel presents his definition explicitly: “By democracy is meant liberal democracy, where those who hold power are elected in competitive elections with a secret ballot and wide franchise (loosely understood as including at least two-thirds of adult males); where there is freedom of speech, religion, and organization; and a constitutional framework of law to which the government is subordinate and that guarantees equal rights.” (p. 11) On p. 86 of Power Kills, Rummel lists additional studies that confirm the proposition that democracies have the least internal violence, but it is not clear whether those studies considered all democracies or only states that Rummel classifies as liberal democracies. Damages: Financial compensation ordered by a court to offset losses or suffering caused by another person’s action or inaction. Damages are typically awarded in claims for breach of contract, negligence or breach of statutory duty.