2. The History Of The Common Law Adversarial Criminal Trial And The Experiences And Needs

Ever since the organisastion of societies in different forms came about, conflicts in the manner of assuming, conferring or exercising of authority and rights and contingent duties for the accepted ideals have been considered in great detail by eminent thinkers. In the 1830s two great judges, James Kent of New York and Joseph Story of Massachusetts, produced important commentaries on common law and equity , emphasizing the need for legal certainty and for security of title to property. These works followed the common-law tradition, which has been fundamental in the United States except in Louisiana, where French civil law has survived. The opposition between civil law and common law legal systems has become increasingly blurred, with the importance of jurisprudence (almost like case law but in name) in civil law countries, and the growing importance of statute law and codes in common law countries (for instance, in matters of criminal … Read the rest

2. The History Of The Common Law Adversarial Criminal Trial And The Experiences And Needs

Anyone who has gone to an Office Depot or Staples or any of the other countless office supply stores has seen how many different office chairs that are available. Thorpe, Wayne (2017). “The IWW and the Dilemmas of Internationalism”. In Cole, Peter; Struthers, David; Zimmer, Kenyon (eds.). Wobblies of the World: A Global History of the IWW. London: Pluto Press. pp. 105-123. Sentences: The penalty imposed by a judge after the defendant is convicted of a crime. Sentences can be: Concurrent – Multiple sentences will be served at the same time (i.e., sentences of 10 years, 8 years and 2 years – to be served concurrently – equal a total effective sentence of 10 years.) Consecutive – The sentences are served back-to-back. The same example above would equal a total effective sentence of 20 years. Legal Aid or Legal Services : Free legal representatives in civil cases for income eligible … Read the rest

2. The History Of The Common Law Adversarial Criminal Trial And The Experiences And Needs

In the rampant rage of wide-spread devolution of humanity, particularly on the shores of the U.S., the arrogance of ignorance spews its contagion in diverse ways. Democracy can be defined as a set of political procedures involving participation and competition, but liberalism is a political philosophy that is based on the principle of individual freedom. As one scholar puts it, “liberalism’s ends are life and property, and its means are liberty and toleration.” 15 Liberalism calls for guarantees of the rights of the individual, including freedom from arbitrary authority, freedom of religion, the right to own and exchange private property, rights to equal opportunity in health care, education, and employment, and the rights to political participation and representation. 16 Only the last category of rights is necessarily guaranteed in polities that meet the procedural definition of democracy. Wieslaw Protschke – alias ‘Wieslaw’ born 1913 in Lwow (Lwiw), his father was … Read the rest