Criminal law can be generally defined as the branch of law that majorly classifies crimes, treats of their nature, and provides best effective ways or approaches that can be followed for their punishment. The US is a Republic, which is not a direct Democracy. A direct democracy is rule by people, not law. Our nation is ruled by law, with our federal government being severely restricted to minimal number of powers or granted authority. In our philosophy of government (at least that of the founders), the government only is authorized to do those things the people consent for them to do, with that consent being revocable by the people. I keep seeing Bernie Sanders coming up in the news, as a possible candidate for President of the United States. He is what some have called a democratic socialist.â€ For those of you who don’t know what that means, a democratic socialist favors political democracy (okay so far), with social ownership of the means of production and distribution, and a large social safety net paid for by the citizens of the society. In my opinion, a bit of socialism is wonderful. Too much is awful. There really has never been a government that hasn’t relied on at least some socialist structures. Where we get in arguments is concerning exactly how much is appropriate. To achieve its utopian aims the Socialist State must be Totalitarian, which is why it is favored by godless people who want the state to be their god, endowed with absolute power, worthy of their worship, ruthlessly eliminating any who do not share its grand vision. Socialism will always fail,â€ wrote Mark J. Perry , a professor of economics at the University of Michigan at Flint and a scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, in March 2016. The Hoover Institution’s Paul R. Gregory offered a primer on Why Socialism Failsâ€ in January 2018. Note 115: The most important challenge to Mansfield and Snyder is Michael D. Ward and Kristian Gleditsch, “Democratizing for Peace,” American Political Science Review, Vol. 92, No. 1 (March 1998), pp. 51-61. Ward and Gleditsch find that democratization reduces the probability of war by about 50%. See also Andrew J. Enterline, “Driving While Democratizing,” International Security, Vol. 20, No. 4 (Spring 1996), pp. 183-196. Mansfield and Snyder reply in ibid., pp. 199-207. Mansfield and Snyder object to Enterline’s focus on militarized international disputes (MIDs) instead of wars, but a strong case can be made for this choice. Wars usually come out of MIDs, which create the opportunity for leaders to play nationalist cards and to otherwise behave and Mansfield and Snyder fear. Mansfield and Snyder are working on a book (forthcoming from The MIT Press in the BCSIA Studies in International Security series) that will present their arguments more comprehensively and with additional data and case studies.
Berry, David (2002). A History of the French Anarchist Movement, 1917-1945. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. It has already been pointed out that the writings of the old authorities on common law have binding force as a source of law. Many academics and other lawyers write books and articles in law journals. There are useful sources in which to find legal principles. The authors explain the whole legal position with respect to legislation, common law and case law. Legal practitioners, the courts and students consult these writings on regular basis. Although these writings do not have binding authority, they can sometimes have persuasive authority. A court may decide to follow the opinion of a particular author, or to depart from a precedents which is at variance with such an opinion. In this way modern authors can influence legal reform. Socialist intellectuals hate the distinguishing features of Western Civilization. They are Darwinists who believe in scientific planning based on evolutionary theory. In Germany they were joined by labor union leaders who yearned for the destruction of the competitive system fostered by free market Capitalism, never mind the accompanying doom of freedom for the individual. They wanted the impersonal discipline of the free market to be replaced by the will of a few individuals. If you destroy the former, you get the latter. Declaratory Judgment – A binding judicial determination of the rights of the parties in a lawsuit where there is doubt as to the partiesÃ legal rights or status. Federal republic – a state in which the powers of the central government are restricted and in which the component parts (states, colonies, or provinces) retain a degree of self-government; ultimate sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental representatives. I request everyone to act in accordance with one’s conscience. Always think about the country. Think about your fellow citizens. Without thinking only about political requirements, think carefully about whether your actions and your words will benefit or harm the country. However, if your conscience tells you that the government is moving in the wrong direction, you always have a duty to point this out boldly. Political freedom is meaningless without economic freedom. Economic freedom is the foundation of all freedoms. Socialism promises freedom from want, but this can only be achieved by relieving the individual of the powerâ€”and necessityâ€”of choice. The right of choice carries with it risk and responsibility.