• Sat. Jan 16th, 2021

SAGE Reference


Nov 18, 2019

Several weeks ago, Premier Wen Jiabao caused a stir when he wrote in the People’s Daily that China would remain in the “primary stage of socialism” for 100 years and, during that time, must focus on economic construction. Restitution. This means paying back the victim for what they’ve lost. Restitution is the primary justification for the payment of compensatory damages in civil cases. It is also a justification for community service and similar punishments in criminal cases (where the public at large is considered a victim of the crime). The Weimar Constitution granted citizens civil liberties like freedom of speech and press. It also provided economic and social rights such as unemployment benefits and a ban against job discrimination because of sex, religion, or politics. In addition, the people had the right to put laws directly before the voters in a referendum. By the provisions of s12 of the Contempt of Court Act 1981 it has jurisdiction only to deal with any person who wilfully insults the justice or justices, any witness or officer of the court or any solicitor or counsel having business in the court, during his or their sitting or attendance in court or in going to or returning from the court; or wilfully interrupts the proceedings of the court or otherwise misbehaves in court. These are forms of criminal contempt. The maximum penalty the magistrates’ court can impose is one month’s imprisonment or a fine up to £2,500. Negligence. Under a negligence doctrine, a defendant will be held liable for damages only if he took less care than he should have taken. The amount of care a defendant should have taken is called “due care,” which is defined as the amount of care a reasonable person would have taken under the same circumstances. To take the lawnmower example, a negligence approach might say that if the lawnmower manufacturer had inspectors on the factory floor, did product safety testing, and attached clear safety guidelines for consumers, then it would not have to pay damages for injuries from its lawnmowers. Many common law principles of fairness might more properly be framed as protection for the right of access to justice, including, for example, the rights: to be heard (Ridge v Baldwin 1964 AC 40 ); to have notice of the case against you (R v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex p Doody 1994 1 AC 531 ); to have a hearing free from bias (Dimes v Proprietors of Grand Junction Canal (1852) 3 HL Cas 759); and to open justice (Scott v Scott 1913 AC 417 ). Many of these concepts are reflected in the fair trial rights protected by ECHR article 6 and in other international treaty protections. title search: An examination of public records to determine the state of a title and confirm that the seller of a property is its legal owner. A cloud on the title such as a lien, an unrecorded owner or differing property descriptions on previous deeds can be a reason to cancel a purchase on a property.

Mittimus Judgment: Also called a Mitt. The formal document prepared by the court clerk to present a convicted defendant in a criminal case to the Department of Correction for incarceration. Bankruptcy – Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may be released (discharged”) from their debts completely or allowed to repay them in whole or in part on a manageable schedule. Federal bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings. The person with the debts is called the debtor and the people or companies to whom the debtor owes money are called creditors. Maréchal – Sylvain Maréchal (1750-1803) Webpages devoted to one of the most radical socialist atheists of all times offer a biography, a facsimile of L’Almanach des Honnêtes Gens (1788) and other documents, in French, all from the collections of the International Institute of Social History. Essentially, the difference between public law and private law is whether the act or acts affect society as a whole or is an issue between two or more people. In the first book-length history of the Italian American syndicalist movement—the Italian Socialist Federation—Michael Miller Topp presents a new way of understanding the Progressive Era labor movement in relation to migration, transnationalism, gender, and class identity. Those without a Country demonstrates that characterizations of “old” (pre-1960s) social movements as predominantly class-based are vastly oversimplified—and contribute to current debates about the implications of identity politics for the American Left and American culture generally. As its name suggests, the Court of Appeal hears appeals from the decisions of the High Court in both civil and criminal matters. It is the Chief Justice and Judges of Appeal who sit in the Court of Appeal. The Court of Appeal is usually made up of three judges (the Chief Justice and two Judges of Appeal). However, on certain occasions there may be less than or more than three judges. Here you’ll find comprehensive criminal law information, including articles on your legal rights, common crimes, and the criminal justice process. Complaint – 1) The legal document that usually begins a civil lawsuit. It states the facts and identifies the action the court is asked to take. 2) Formal written charge that a person has committed a criminal offense. Medicare does not indebt every man woman and child in America to the tune of half a million dollars in tax burden which cannot be paid off without bankrupting the entire nation. Obama’s health plan is communism of a shade that not even Chavez would dare introduce, and therefore is more than ample grounds for immediate impeachment for the sake of the country.

Do you already have an account with Office Depot and do you want to order online? Please click on the register” link and provide us with the necessary details. You will receive your personal login details within one working day. This is a cold recipe to provoke police violence on other activists. To be sure, the state will mobilize armed force to control social protest—our movements do not need special tactics to elicit police violence—we need more people on our side of the struggle. Sometimes, confronting the police is necessary to win, or to defend our movement. But the insurrectionists prefer to visualize a more threatening state” rather than the power of social movements. Republic does not mean a democracy; it simply means it is NOT a monarchy and by that definition all forms of government, including the Nazi run government of 1930s and 1940s Germany was also a republic. It is time for the Revolution to continue. By 2012, we will not recognize the political system in the United States as the dispersion of information shifts unfiltered to the people through the Internet’s power. We should all welcome it, and thank God for it. What a wonderful thing that we will be alive to see it. Note 89: See Forsythe, “Democracy, War, and Covert Action”; and Patrick James and Glenn E. Mitchell, II, “Targets of Covert Pressure: The Hidden Victims of the Democratic Peace,” International Interactions, Vol. 21, No. 1 (July 1995). 1.1.2 The legal system will inevitably undergo tension as socio-economic and politico-legal changes unfold with increased globalisation and regionalisation as well as pervasive technological changes. Thus, Singapore has to respond swiftly and deftly in creating new laws and institutions or adapting existing ones. From the mid-1970’s, East Germany remained poised between the East and the West. The 1974 amendment to the Constitution designated East Germany as a socialist nation-state of workers and peasants. Détente helped strengthen the ties between the two Germany’s and 5 to 7 million West Germans and West Berliners visited East Germany each year. Personal ties between the two Germany’s were becoming restored and East German citizens had more direct contact with West German politics and consumer goods. Preliminary Objection – A responsive pleading in a civil case in which a party alleges that another partyís previous pleading is legally defective and asks that the court either dismiss or strike part of or all the previous pleading. B. Green Statement of 1865; Asher Wright to Joseph Barrett, May 3, 1866” Foster J. Hudson Pension Record. Civil War Pension Records, National Archives, Washington D.C. Referenced in Laurence M. Hauptman, The Iroquois in the Civil War: From Battlefield to Reservation. (NY: Syracuse University Press, 1993).

Similarly, Anderson’s protagonists in Under Three Flags (i.e., José Rizal, Isabelo de los Reyes), who posed a threat to Spanish colonialism, also belong in this class. Anderson highlights the cosmopolitanism of the elite Filipino nationalists, who were multilingual, well travelled, and highly cultured, as courageous political activists of their time. In Under Three Flags, Anderson suggests that anti-colonial struggles in the Philippines (Katipunan revolutionary flag of 1894) and Cuba (current Cuban flag adopted in 1902) were both linked by anarchism (an ‘A’ with a circle around it on a black flag). He notes that a series of transnational actions and discussions occurred simultaneously across the globe during the last two decades of the nineteenth century, or what he calls the Age of Early Globalization,” when anarchism was a dominant element of the radical Left. Anarchism, which Anderson defines as an emphasis on personal liberty and autonomy” coupled with a typical suspicion of hierarchical (bureaucratic) organization” and a penchant for vitriolic rhetoric” (72), was inevitably an important part of these actions and discussions among elite nationalists, who may not be anarchists themselves. However, who these accomplished Filipino nationalists read and what they read about in novels, poems, and newspapers while they were in Europe matter. Europe, especially Paris, was the centre for some of the most exciting progressive thinking and literature during the late nineteenth century. The North Eastern Railway and Tomlinson are interlinked in the same way as Robert Stephenson and railway building. If you want to know the in-depth history of the North Eastern Railway, this is the definitive work. Exhaustive, thorough-going, call it what you will, but his perception of the company, its predecessors and its early history are second-to-none. Having lived in the company’s heyday, his observations are immediate and accurate. Many of its founding fathers were contemporaries. George Leeman steered it through its infancy, Robert Stephenson was commissioned on a number of its projects. The NER’s territory, after acquisition of neighbouring railways, stretched from Selby north to Berwick-upon-Tweed, from Newcastle-upon-Tyne to Carlisle in the west, from Northallerton to Garsdale on the Settle & Carlisle Railway. With its sea-going ferries there were links to the Netherlands, North Germany and Scandinavia. Its hotels were sought out by the rich and powerful and its carriages were the envy of many in their deep crimson lake livery. Freight from the steel works, ironstone and coal mines was taken across country, to the several ports and cities of the region. Riches flowed back, making the NER one of the wealthiest companies in the empire.

You are right though about the Civil Rights Act, while it was meant to give people equal rights, some rights are restricted but low and behold, that is why Republicans love statehood because they get to call the shots and hate the government because the Constitution suprecedes the state. The resolution or parties’ agreement to end a lawsuit without going to trial, usually involving payment of compensation from defendant to plaintiff. The Attorney General has a public interest function, part of which is to ensure the fair and proper administration of justice. In exercising his or her functions in relation to contempt, the Attorney General is acting independently of Government, in a public interest capacity, to ensure that justice is protected and accordingly takes it proper course. It is imperative that where an allegation of contempt of court arises and the Attorney may need to institute proceedings or his consent is required it is referred immediately to the Attorney General. Cases should be referred immediately even though further investigation is required or is being carried out and particularly where an Order has been made for the matter to be referred to the Attorney General. The strategy and the tactics of this third, counter-hegemonic, route need constant fine-tuning. But two lessons are already clear. First, a struggle to rescue Indian democracy cannot be separated either from the battle to save the Indian model of a diverse nation, or from the need to resurrect the promise of an inclusive welfare state. A single point save democracy” or save constitution” movement is unlikely to succeed. The political battle has to go hand in hand with struggles in the economic and cultural spheres. And second, the electoral arena may not be central to the historic mission of reclaiming the republic. We are unlikely to witness a repeat of 1977 when an authoritarian ruler quietly stepped down after an electoral defeat. Mass mobilisation and popular resistance outside the electoral arena are going to be prerequisites for any effective reversal of the hegemonic power. Oligarchy refers to a form of government in which a smattering of individuals rule over a nation. In many ways, oligarchy is a catch-all for any number of other forms of governance in which a specific set of qualities — wealth, heredity, race — are used to vest power in a small group of individuals. So, forms of government regarded as aristocratic, plutocratic, or totalitarian, for instance, can be referred to as oligarchic. Oligarchies are often characterized by tyrannical or authoritarian rule and an absence of democratic practices or individual rights.