Anyone who is purchasing office equipment or needs to replace old office equipment faces the task of finding the cheapest possible option. The first signs of the modern distinction between crimes and civil matters emerged during the Norman Invasion of England. 6 The special notion of criminal penalty, at least concerning Europe, arose in Spanish Late Scholasticism (see Alfonso de Castro ), when the theological notion of God’s penalty (poena aeterna) that was inflicted solely for a guilty mind, became transfused into canon law first and, finally, to secular criminal law. 7 The development of the state dispensing justice in a court clearly emerged in the eighteenth century when European countries began maintaining police services. From this point, criminal law formalized the mechanisms for enforcement, which allowed for its development as a discernible entity. It’s often the case that when you need to lease a copy machine, storage facility, automotive vehicle, office or business equipment, the source looks to you to personally ‘guarantee’ the transaction. That means you personally must sign and stand behind the cost. If the business cannot meet the obligation, you’re expected by the source to carry the burden yourself. That means the full extent of your savings, home equity, investments and everything else you have an ownership interest in is at risk. From my perspective, I think that democracy is synonymous of equality between women and men in the civil society and government. Ironically, there are more women voters, but fewer women candidates. However, From my point of view I think that “Parity Democracy” is the big difference between democracies and dictatorships.I remembered that the Taliban´s regime -the worst dictatorship in the modern history- prohibited women from participating in Afghanistan´s National 1990 Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, a pro-dremocracy activist, won the elections in Myanmar (ex-Burma), but she was arrested and the results were cancelled abruptly by dictator Saw Maung. As for the government being “powerless” – I am not convinced. I think we need the right people – IMHO. As you were reading through this section, you probably realized that the United States, along with many other countries, fall into more than one democratic category. That’s because a democratic country can use more than one type of democracy to run its government. For instance, a city can use direct democracy to vote in new laws and select state and federal representatives. Those representatives then participate in representative democracy, where they speak—and vote!—on behalf of their constituents. And finally, all of these actions—policy decisions, government structure, citizens’ rights, and the creation of new laws—are governed by the constitution. That means the United States is a constitutional democracy as well.