Today as majority of the employees tend to spend more than eight to nine hours in an office; it is important to have the right kind of office equipment to ensure their comfort so that they are able to focus in their work. Since then, public consensus on the Scopes trial has mostly been shaped by a 1960 film called Inherit the Wind, which is loosely based on the event. However, author Edward Larson has since tried to fill in the gaps in the movie, as well as correct some of its inaccuracies. His book Summer for the Gods is possibly the most detailed account of the trial, including the events that led to it as well as its aftermath. Accordingly, it is broken down into three main sections: “Before,” “During,” “And After.” When writing the book, Larson had at his disposal a vast amount of archival material that no researcher had the privilege of examining before. This advantage is made clear throughout the text-practically on every page-which is filled with details you’d never find with a simple Google search. Larson also takes the dual-position of historian as well as storyteller. In addition to providing copious detail on every aspect of the trial (everything from facial expressions to random observers’ commentary), Larson tries to the story of the Scopes trial in narrative form. When retelling the tale of John Scopes being asked to go to trial, Larson adds in: “A chain smoker, Scopes probably lit a cigarette at this point, if he had not already done so” (p. 89). Additions like these, although minor, make the entire text sound like a story rather than a history textbook, therefore making the book more readable to a wider audience. There are two main forms of contempt – criminal and civil – but the burden of proof for both is to the criminal standard – Dean v Dean 1987 1 FLR 517 CA. The question whether contempt is a criminal contempt does not depend on the nature of the court to which the contempt was displayed; it depends on the nature of the conduct. To burst into a court room and disrupt a civil trial would be a criminal contempt just as much as if the court had been conducting a criminal trial. Conversely, disobedience to a procedural order of a court is not in itself a crime, just because the order was made in the course of criminal proceedings.” – R v ‘Brien 2014 UKSC 23 at 42. As a result of the past, human resources in the justice system are skewed along race and gender lines. Posts in the former TBVC states and the lower posts in the justice system are virtually all held by black people. Senior posts are virtually all held by white people. The legal profession and its governing institutions are dominated by white males. This must be changed. There must be enough black people and women in senior legal posts and in the justice system as a whole. It must be made truly representative of the South African people. Corrective action must be embarked upon in order to ensure that this objective is achieved as speedily as possible.

Deposition: Testimony of a witness taken, under oath, in response to another party’s questions. Testimony given outside the courtroom, usually in a lawyer’s office. A word for word account (transcript) is made of the testimony. BDazzler- You made a lot of good points. Thank you. The problem with Socialism or Central Planning is what you alluded to: who decides what is fair? Give me the free market every time. It is always impartial and no respector of persons-as the Rule of Law also should be. If people criticized Socialism, they were simply killed—1.5 million of them in 1938 alone. Many common citizens were compelled to participate in this orgy of destruction by informing on others; ordinary people were forced to spy on their friends and neighbors in order to stay alive. An attorney employed by the government to represent a person accused of a serious crime and who cannot afford to hire an attorney. What to read: Political man (1960), American exclusiveness: a double-edged sword (1996). Wong, Bella Friedman (nd) Polish Jewish anarchist married to Eddie Wong, a member of the Pingshe Group of Chinese anarchists in San Francisco; they were active in the New York City International Group in 1929 and the Vanguard Group (Zimmer, 393,402-203). Step 6. Government Fixes Prices and Declares When Goods Can be Sold. Diocletian set wage and price controls for socialist Rome. In Venezuela, people can only shop on certain days and shopping malls can only be open two days a week. Free of that today, in the 1970s, we had gas rationing and double-digit inflation. Trial Court – A court that conducts hearings and trials by accepting testimony and other evidence to reach a verdict or decision, as opposed to an appellate court where appeals of decisions made in trial courts are heard. 71 Holly Johnson, ‘Crime Victimisation in Australia: Key Results of the 2004 International Crime Victimisation Survey’ (Research and Public Policy Series No. 64, Australian Institute of Criminology, 2005) x. Personal crime is defined in the report to include assault, threats, robbery and personal theft. The nationalisation of productive resources and of large economic establishments was carried out in several stages. It began with the confiscation of enemy property after the war and was completed by the nationalisation laws in 1946 that applied to all large industrial enterprises, transport, wholesale trade, banks and insurance companies; and the 1948 law which nationalised undertakings of lesser importance such as small electric power stations, small mines, brick works, mills, hospitals, hotels, cinemas. The land reform in 1945 eliminated the large landowners and the surviving features of the feudal system and limited holdings to a maximum of 75 – 87 acres (lowered further to 25 acres in 1953). There were also limits on private property in real estate and a proportional tax on personal incomes was introduced (Uvalić, R. 1954, p. 236).

At the same time, Robert P. Hartwig, president of the Insurance Information Institute, said that buried deep in the new federal law are items that could be positives for workers’ compensation, health and disability insurers. Gov. McDonnell signed a measure, passed last month by the Virginia General Assembly, stating in part that no resident shall be required to obtain or maintain a policy of individual insurance coverage except as required by a court or the Department of Social Services…” The state statute is in direct conflict with the new Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, mandating that all Americans buy some form of health insurance starting in 2014. Immanuel Ness research and published scholarly work focuses on political economy of comparative labor movements, workers social organization, Global South relations, socialism and contemporary imperialism. He is editor of Journal of Labor and Society. Ness is also Senior Research Associate, Department of Sociology, University of Johannesburg. If they still seem hesitant, promise that all participants will only play during their sanctioned lunch break. If that doesn’t work, and your appetite hasn’t waned, you’ll need to go under the radar and hold a stealth mini golf tournament. Do this at your own risk: neither the writer of this article nor Hubpages accepts liability for disciplinary hearings, written warnings and dismissals. The expansion of the private sector, consisting mainly of agriculture and certain crafts and services, was restricted by law, since private property on a larger scale was considered incompatible with the socialist economic system. The 1953 land reform reduced the limit on the size of private holdings further, from 35 to 25 acres per family, while in other sectors limits were placed on the number of workers that could be employed, usually five workers other than family members. As a result, the social sector remained the dominant part of the Yugoslav economy, in 1989 still contributing 86.2% of Social Product (SP) 7 (Savezni zavod za statistiku, 1991). Clerk of Courts – The officer who generally acts as the administrative agent of the court. Responsibilities include, but are not limited to, accepting filings, recording orders of court, and calculating sentences imposed in criminal matters. But for millions of poor Americans who rely on food stamps, reductions that began this month present awful choices. One gallon of milk for the kids instead of two. No fresh broccoli for dinner or snacks to take to school. Weeks of grits and margarine for breakfast.

A decisive moment for Yugoslavia’s ‘third way’ was the political split between Yugoslavia and the USSR in 1948. The schism between Stalin and Tito was not the result of ideological differences, but arose mainly, according to the dominant interpretation, out of Tito’s extra-Yugoslav ambitions (Pavlowitch, 2002). 3 The result was Yugoslavia’s expulsion from the Soviet bloc, the removal of its ruling party from the Cominform (the Information Bureau of Communist Parties). These events facilitated the abandoning of the earlier uncritical emulation of the Soviet model although with some delay; thus agriculture was briefly collectivised in 1948 to prove socialist conformity (Estrin, 1983, p. 52). Since post-leftism positions itself outside and opposed to the left, it plays the most reactionary role within anarchism. Unaccountable to anyone but themselves, post-leftist tactics have served to disrupt and disorient fresh activist movements. On the ideological level, post-leftism is more closely related with the bizarre formulations of the so-called anarcho-capitalists and national anarchists. Indeed, many do not consider the post-leftists to be anarchists at all. Yet, the three-way fight” politics continue to permeate the anarchist movement. The Magistrates’ Courts Amendment Act, 1993 (Act 120 of 1993) provides for the establishment of family courts. These courts will be instituted as pilot projects in the various provinces. Family courts will be part of the lower court structure, and these courts will hear divorce actions. The exclusive jurisdiction of the high court in such cases will therefore cease. Many divorce cases are quite simple because they are unopposed. The family court will provide for cheaper litigation in such cases. It will not be necessary to appoint an advocate, as is the case in the high court, because an attorney will be able to appear in the family courts. It will also reduce the costs for people who live far away from a high court. But the high court will still have jurisdiction (although not exclusive jurisdiction) in divorce cases. This means that the high court will be a more suitable forum for opposed and complex divorce actions. The family court also has jurisdiction in other family related disputes such as maintenance, access, custody and guardianship of children. Through a rich variety of multidisciplinary networks and research centres, our academics maintain significant connections with the international community and are exceptionally well placed to explore the social, cultural and political foundations of the contemporary world.

It became apparent that in order to ensnare Rudolf Hess MI6 needed to use bogus astrological predictions combined with political intelligence. Hess was persuaded that a Scottish aristocrat, the Duke of Hamilton, was willing to negotiate peace terms on behalf of the influential people at the top of British society who wanted to end the war. The Duke had previously met Hess at the Berlin Olympics in 1936 and the deputy Führer for some reason thought he was still a member of the surviving Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Ian Fleming commissioned an astrologer to produce a faked astrological forecast indicating that the 10th May 1941 would be a propitious date for Rudolf Hess to fly to Scotland for a secret meeting with the Duke of Hamilton and other members of the so-called British ‘peace party’. Hess’ occult advisors conveniently confirmed there would be an unusual planetary conjunction on the 10th May. On that day six planets would be aligned in the zodiac sign of Taurus and conjoin with the full moon. At the same time Hitler’s chart showed malefic (thought to bring bad luck and misfortune to those born within its radius) astrological aspects. Hess saw himself in the role of a messianic hero saving Germany from possible future defeat by making peace with the British. All the (false) reports reaching the deputy Führer about the political situation in England and the astrological aspects convinced him that his mission would be a success. I believe, as it stands right now, we do not have a true capitalist system. True capitalism is not regulated by government as it is today. The essentials of true capitalism are having a free market, private property, and letting people voluntarily help one another. What we have today is more of a corporate oligarchy. You do however make a good point in saying socialism has changed dramatically in the last century or so. In conclusion you talk of not demonizing socialism so lets not demonize true capitalism. The refusal to acknowledge that disablement or impairment is not just limited to those very obviously disabled but is a ‘normal condition of all humanity’ is clearly the reason for the historical oppression and exclusion of ostensibly impaired people by the majority of so-called normal people. This is said to be due to a need for denial of their own vulnerability, frailty and mortality, projecting them on to others less able to defend themselves. The far-reaching insight that we are all impaired should alert us to the fact that simplistic models may serve their purpose, but in a time-limited and contingent manner.