India is a democratic country with sovereign socialist secular parliamentary form of government. The official decision of a court that finally resolves a dispute between parties to a lawsuit. FYI: The Labour Party in Britain aligns with the ‘Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats’ (188 seats back in 2018). Pro Bono Publico – For the public good. Lawyers representing clients without a fee are said to be working pro bono publico. 1.7.1 The great efficiency and strength of the Singapore Judiciary has won her several accolades and a strong international reputation (see the rankings of the world´s legal systems by Political and Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) and the Institute for Management Development (IMD)). Strict case management and Alternative Dispute Resolution methods (see Section 9 below) have reduced drastically the backlog of cases which had plagued both the Supreme Court and State (formerly the Subordinate) Courts in the 1980s. The Honourable Chief Justice Sundaresh Menon, since his appointment with effect from November 2012, has attained several notable achievements and undertaken important institutional reforms related to the administration of justice. One major innovation is the setting up of the Singapore International Commercial Court to hear transnational commercial disputes with a view to establishing Singapore as an international and regional hub for dispute resolution in commercial matters. The Singapore Judicial College provides continuing training and development for the judges, and shares Singapore courts’ experiences in the use of technology, organisational excellence and active case management with their counterparts in the region. Retired judges of the Supreme Court with a wealth of judicial expertise and experience have been appointed as Senior Judges of the Supreme Court to ease the hearing load and to mentor younger judges. The Family Justice Courts have also been set up under the leadership of Sundaresh Menon CJ to provide a non-adversarial approach to resolving family-related disputes. The Centre for Dispute Resolution was launched in 2015 at the State Courts to consolidate the ADR services. In theories developed by Karl Marx, socialism is the transitional period between capitalism and communism. In a few civil law countries, such as Sweden, 107 the legal profession is not rigorously bifurcated and everyone within it can easily change roles and arenas. Socialism refers to aligning all steps of business to the ownership of the whole, including land, the means of production, and distribution. Unions are (Or at least formed) specifically for workers’ rights and compensation. They’re not fighting to take over the land the work is on, they’re not fighting to take over the factories and offices. The system on the whole is still Capitalistic because the business owner still privately retains all of those aspects.
By responding the way he did, the premier made it clear that concepts like democracy, rule of law and human rights, which are sometimes labeled as bourgeois and unsuitable for socialist China, are actually universal values, or, in the words of the premier, “common achievements of human civilizations”. Firms and individual practitioners should note the need to distinguish their professional obligations of confidentiality from the concept of legal professional privilege. Legal professional privilege can only be waived by the client (and not the firm). In brief terms, confidential information may be disclosed where it is appropriate to do so but privilege is absolute, and privileged information cannot therefore be disclosed. Confidential communications between lawyers and clients for the purpose of obtaining and giving legal advice are privileged. If you are considering whether to disclose information your first question may be whether it is privileged or simply confidential. If you are charged, you will be asked to appear before a magistrates’ court. This is where less serious offences (for example, minor criminal damage, or speeding offences) are tried. There is no jury at a magistrates’ court. Although there are fundamental differences between the two systems of justice, both common law and civil law have become global legal traditions that continue to effectively shape the justice systems of hundreds of countries. Both affect how business is conducted within a specific jurisdiction. Both affect how international business is carried out. The timing and speed of implementation of transition-related economic reforms varied considerably across the successor states of Yugoslavia, to a great extent determined by the very different political conditions in each country in the early 1990s. Slovenia proceeded faster than the other countries. The events accompanying the break-up of Yugoslavia had a less profound impact on Slovenia than on the other countries: the 1991 intervention of the federal Yugoslav army aimed at preventing the republic’s secession was of very short duration. Although Slovenia was also affected by the loss of a common market and the disruption of trade flows, the effects were relatively quickly absorbed. In most other Yugoslav successor states, on the contrary, involvement in the military conflicts of the 1990s had lasted longer and has had much deeper economic consequences. Complaint : A legal document that tells the court what you want, and is served with a summons on the defendant to begin the case.
The Weimar Republic was a bold experiment. It was Germany’s first democracy, a state in which elected representatives had real power. The new Weimar constitution attempted to blend the European parliamentary system with the American presidential system. In the pre-World War I period, only men twenty-five years of age and older had the right to vote, and their elected representatives had very little power. The Weimar constitution gave all men and women twenty years of age the right to vote. Women made up more than 52% of the potential electorate, and their support was vital to the new Republic. From a ballot, which often had thirty or more parties on it, Germans chose legislators who would make the policies that shaped their lives. Parties spanning a broad political spectrum from Communists on the far left to National Socialists (Nazis)on the far right competed in the Weimar elections. The Chancellor and the Cabinet needed to be approved by the Reichstag (legislature) and needed the Reichstag’s continued support to stay in power. For the first time in human history almost all of humanity is politically activated, politically conscious and politically interactive. There are only a few pockets of humanity left in the remotest corners of the world that are not politically alert and engaged with the political turmoil and stirrings that are so widespread today around the world. Each magistrate’s court functions as a maintenance court within its particular magisterial district. Some persons, such as parents, are legally liable to maintain (support) others, for example their children. If they do not fulfil their duties, a complaint can be lodged with the court’s maintenance officer. The maintenance officer will investigate the case, and submit it to the court. The court can make an appropriate order. It can also increase the amount of maintenance in light of changed circumstances. pgrundy’s observation about government money doesn’t surprise me. It was the same with the drug war and the ridiculous seizing of property because someone was caught with a joint. That was so obviously about money and so obviously wrong it’s still amazing to me that they can get away with it and nobody is doing anything about it. The people (government of, by, and for?) pass a state law for medicinal marijuana and the feds don’t like it so they bust in and arrest them anyway. It’s absurd. All the feds have to do to bend a state to their will is withhold federal highway funds. Very convenient for propigating their facism.
Personal information in a court file or document that should be excluded from public access. Also called protected information. For example, a person’s social security number, dates of birth, and names of minor children. And no matter where you go, politics is a matter of social engagement, and most people know what is generally going on-generally going on — in the world, and are consciously aware of global inequities, inequalities, lack of respect, exploitation. Mankind is now politically awakened and stirring. The combination of the two: the diversified global leadership, politically awakened masses, makes a much more difficult context for any major power including, currently, the leading world power: the United States. At the same time, Wilson and Fekete had joined Rabinovitch and the SDU in mobilizing against the McCoubrey-Aberman Council’s attempted purge of Sandy Gage in Fall 1966. They and other graduates of the Kingsbury school of course design, like Engineering student Robert Hajaly (later elected for 1968-69 as the only overtly left-wing Council president ever), ran successfully for Council in December 1966. Fekete explained that he had run because he was appalled with Council’s misuse of power but also because Council needed to go beyond just providing services. Students are here primarily to get an education and Council must involve itself in the whole process of education” (661209p5or6or7). The successful liberal-left candidates all saw the need to avoid a repeat of the Gage purge. Many supported empowering a law student Judicial Council to rule on any violation of the student constitution by a future Council (conservative students instead sought a law student court that would confine itself to imposing discipline on disorderly students). They agreed that both Council and other student societies should be accountable to regular Open meetings and should be subject to overrule by referenda, but disagreed as to whether Open meetings should be allowed to do the same (661209p5). SDU’s Rabinovitch and Harry Edel proposed that Open meetings be required to be held at least twice a semester in each faculty and that Judicial Council decisions should be made subject to appeal to an open meeting of the Students’ Society (661209p10). The U.S.A.’s Constitution defines the U.S. as a Republic, Article 4, Section 4 of the U.S. Constitution. America’s founders were wary of aristocracy and monarchy, and preferred a democratic republic. Congrat’s on receiving such a tough award on hubpages, this article here shows that you definitely have a way with words, your intelligence level is on point, your research is superlative, and now I fully understand why cell phones can only be used under certain given conditions, and with extreme caution when in flight status has been reached and or ruled as prohibited by certain Airline companies.
Despite the common use of the word “democracy” and the desire to “spread democracy,” most countries throughout the world today govern as republics. However, republics differ widely, with some operating under a presidential system, where the people directly or nearly-directly elect a president who is the head of the government; a parliamentary system, where the people elect a legislature who decides the executive branch; and even constitutional and parliamentary monarchies that tend to behave as republics but often have royal figureheads. Im not interested in democratic socialism, im a liberal. Strict Liability Statutes – Statutes criminalizing specific conduct without regard to the actor’s intent. The only question for a judge or jury in a strict-liability case is whether the defendant did the prohibited act. Criminal law, which is a branch of public law, defines the boundaries of acceptable conduct. A person who breaks the criminal law is regarded as having committed an offence against society as a whole. An attorney-at-law is defined as a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute and defend actions in such court on the retainer of clients. The English word attorney has French origins, meaning a person acting for another as an agent or deputy.” An attorney actually practices law in court whereas a lawyer may or may not. An attorney has passed the bar exam and has been approved to practice law in his jurisdiction. Society for Irish Latin American Studies Formerly The Irish Argentine Historical Society. The Society’s scope of study is the migration of people from Ireland to Latin America, their settlement, lives, and achievements, as well as those of their descendants, together with contemporary presence of Ireland and people of Irish ancestry in the life and culture of Latin America, and the presence of Latin Americans in Ireland. A problem-solving court that works as an alternative to sending a drug offender to jail or prison. Drug courts involve the services of judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys, probations officers, law enforcement, and others working to help offenders find and utilize the tools necessary for recovery and staying in recovery to lead a productive life. Common law is created by a system which relies on a court hierarchy. This means that courts lower down in that hierarchy (such as the Magistrates’ Courts, Crown Court, County Court or High Court) are bound by the decisions made by the higher courts (such as the House of Lords). Criminal law is distinctive for the uniquely serious, potential consequences or sanctions for failure to abide by its rules. 8 Every crime is composed of criminal elements Capital punishment may be imposed in some jurisdictions for the most serious crimes. Physical or corporal punishment may be imposed such as whipping or caning , although these punishments are prohibited in much of the world. Individuals may be incarcerated in prison or jail in a variety of conditions depending on the jurisdiction. Confinement may be solitary. Length of incarceration may vary from a day to life. Government supervision may be imposed, including house arrest , and convicts may be required to conform to particularized guidelines as part of a parole or probation regimen. Fines also may be imposed, seizing money or property from a person convicted of a crime.