Many people become lawyers because they see injustices in the world and they want to make a difference. Despite retaining a communist one-party political regime throughout its existence (1945 – 1991), Yugoslavia was the first socialist country to attempt far-reaching economic reforms. Because of its early start and frequency of systemic changes, it was considered the most reformed socialist economy. For over forty years, Yugoslavia has tried to develop its own model of socialism based on workers’ self-management, ample decentralisation, social ownership and increasing reliance on the market mechanism. The continuous experiments with economic reforms produced an economic system with specific characteristics based on a combination of socialist, self-managed and market features, facilitated by the country’s international relations. Another distinctive feature of Yugoslavia was that the socialist model was not imposed from the outside, as in most East European countries that after 1945 became ‘satellites’ of the Soviet Union, but emerged from a grass-root revolution led by Tito’s partisans during World War Two. We used voting, and made a very specific decision to switch to voting and take as much power away from the GA General Assembly and put it into committees. When talking to people from OWS Occupy Wall Street or Occupy LA, groups that didn’t do that, their GA became useless and dysfunctional. It can become like political theater … With decentralization, some of the committees used consensus and some used voting. It was a very practical shunning of spiritual purity. When you see a judge or magistrate sitting in court, you are actually looking at the result of 1,000 years of legal evolution. Several past and present states have declared themselves socialist states or in the process of building socialism The majority of self-declared socialist countries have been Marxist-Leninist or inspired by it, following the model of the Soviet Union or some form of people’s or national democracy They share a common definition of socialism and they refer to themselves as socialist states on the road to communism with a leading vanguard party structure, hence they are often called communist states Meanwhile, the countries in the non-Marxist-Leninist category represent a wide variety of different interpretations of the term socialism and in many cases the countries do not define what they mean by it. Modern uses of the term socialism are wide in meaning and interpretation. Wow, what a comprehensive hub with an amazing collection of photographs. You must have been working on this for a long time before publishing it. Congratulations on being chosen for “Hug of the Day” too. Your dad was sure understanding and patient.

The fact that many Germans were attracted by the NSDAP was not only because of their party programme. The party radiated strength and vitality. Moreover, the Nazi leaders were young, quite unlike the greying politicians of the established parties. In addition, Hitler’s image as a strong leader appealed to people. He was all set to unite the population and put an end to political discord. I think part of the difference maybe the old problem of the ‘Fear of the Unknown’ e.g. the American Public haven’t had a ‘Socialist’ Government in power, so they tend to think of it as ‘Communism’, and fear it. Whereas we’ve had ‘Socialist’ Polices in the UK since 1945 e.g. the NHS, Welfare State etc., so the British Public (including Conservative voters) have got to appreciate it, and depend on it. Reasonable Suspicion – Level of suspicion required to justify law enforcement investigation, but not arrest or search. A lower level of suspicion or evidence than probable cause. An officer has reasonable suspicion when the officer is aware of specific, articulable facts, together with rational inferences from those facts, which, when judged objectively, would lead a reasonable person to believe that criminal activity occurred or was occurring. Majority Rule does not apply in Socialism. While in Democratic Republic, Majority Rule is present. Entity – A legally identifiable being with specific legal rights and which may be held legally liable, such as an individual, partnership, corporation, or governmental body. Other historic reformist or gradualist movements within socialism, as opposed to revolutionary approaches, include Fabian socialist and Menshevik groupings. The ethnographic approach has particular potential for studying political communication through enlarging understandings of political institutions and expanding definitions of politics.” First, widening institutional understanding takes advantage of ethnography’s capacity to open windows that traditional analysis of political institutions leaves shut. Second, ethnography is uniquely able to examine new forms of engagement that people have not yet defined as politics.” Third, studying political communication ethnographically means expanding the modes of communication and activity examined to include nonverbal and virtual communication. Politics is one of the principal arenas in which culture” unfolds and becomes observable, yet in ways that are not limited to political institutions or decision-making practices. Common to political ethnographies is the capability to show how how” and why” are linked: how a political process or practice takes place enables finding out why it does.

After Yugoslavia’s breakup in 1991, there have been very different interpretations and explanations of the causes of the country’s disintegration, sometimes attributing all the ills that had affected the country to the system of self-managed socialism. Also more recently in its successor states, self-management has sometimes been blamed for the remaining lack of discipline of workers, survival of collective principles of solidarity and slow acceptance of new norms of behaviour. Now these working class suckers are running round the rust belt like chickens with their heads freshly cut off trying like hell to recall them from power. From what I am seeing and hearing as I roll with the wretched of the earth, a financial crash just now would unleash the dogs of chaos and seriously destabilize American society – I can envision food riots. Great ideas. Thank you for sharing them. 🙂 As a child I grew up with power outages, some of them done on purpose (this was behind the “Iron Curtain”, so indeed we had a period of time when each night we had no electricity for an hour), and never thought anything of them. They were just part of life. However, I have only experienced a black-out once since living in the US, due to a storm, and it lasted a few hours; didn’t help that we live in the desert and it was summer, so the hardest thing for us to deal with was no air conditioning. We just solved it by getting wet (we still had running water), other than that we just had some really great family time 🙂 Sometimes power outages bring the family together, since there are no distraction like Internet, TV and other media. You wrote a great hub on a good topic. New developments in the East Sea, including unilateral actions, power-based coercion, violations international law, militarisation, change in the status quo, and infringement upon Viet Nam’s sovereignty, sovereign rights, and jurisdiction as provided in international law, have undermined the interests of nations concerned and threatened peace, stability, security, safety, and freedom of navigation and overflight in the region. The Soviets backed Hitler by allowing him to produce and test his weapons on their soil; they also provided the Nazis with food and metal. The common enemy of the Soviets and the Nazis was liberal democracy—meaning liberal in the classical sense, as in the ideas of the American Founding Fathers, not in the postmodern use of the word liberal” in American politics to denote Socialists. Classical Liberal Democracy reveres free enterprise, private property, and individual rights.

Democratic socialists are not necessarily bothered by the loose definition. There is room for more than one movement on the left, Mr. Sunkara said. Socialism – a government in which the means of planning, producing, and distributing goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor; in actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite. Summons : A legal paper that is used to start a civil case and get jurisdiction over a party. Political parties have been central to the organization and operations of the U.S. House of Representatives. As this chart demonstrates, the efforts of the founding generation to create a national government free of political parties proved unworkable. Parties demonstrated their worth in the House very quickly in organizing its work and in bridging the separation of powers. Within a decade House parties absorbed the various state and local factions. International Association Strikes and Social Conflicts An Association of institutional and individual members, aiming to promote and disseminates studies on labour and social conflicts in an interdisciplinary, global, long term historical and non Eurocentric perspective. A meeting of the judge and lawyers to plan the trial, to discuss which matters should be presented to the jury, to review proposed evidence and witnesses, and to set a trial schedule. Typically, the judge and the parties also discuss the possibility of settlement of the case. Uvalić, Radivoj (1964). Functions of the market and plan in the socialist economy. In Radmila Stojanovic (Ed.). Yugoslav Economists on Problems of a Socialist Economy. New York: International Arts and Sciences Press, pp. 140-147. The HLP based its lawsuit on three constitutional challenges to 2339B: 1) it violated their First Amendment freedom of speech; and 2) it violated their First Amendment freedom of association. These two challenges were premised on the theory that 2339B criminalized their support to PKK and LTTE without the Government having to prove that HLP had a specific intent to further the unlawful ends of those groups. Finally, HLP challenged 2339B as being unconstitutionally vague. Clearly not: Capitalism, as we can see across the globe, is compatible with all different kinds of political regimes: liberal democratic, communist, autocratic — and now illiberal democracies, too. One central power institution that was significant in establishing consensus among Western elites and providing a forum for expanding global western hegemony was the Bilderberg Group, founded in 1954 as an international think tank.