Criminal law is the body of rules that defines crimes and treats for their punishment. The Civil Division, headed by the Law Officer (Civil Law), provides legal advice on civil law to all Government bureaux and departments. It also represents the Government both as solicitors and as barristers in all civil litigations, including arbitrations. Specialist units advise on building and planning law, on the drafting of Government contracts and on the role of the Government as an employer. The division advises on the adequacy of existing legislation in relation to civil law and on the preparation of drafting instructions in respect of new legislation or amendments to existing legislation. The Common law, inherited from the British, is an important aspect of the Singapore legal framework. Singapore’s common law is characterized by the practice of judicial precedent. In other words, the law is created by judgments handed down by the courts. In this regard, the judges are only required to apply the ratio decidendi (or the operative reason for the decision) of the higher court within the same hierarchy. Thus, in Singapore, the ratio decidendi found in the decisions of the Singapore Court of Appeal are strictly binding on the Singapore High Court, the District Court and the Magistrates’ Court. Major portions of Singapore law, particularly contract law, equity and trust law, property law and tort law, are largely judge-made, though certain aspects have now been modified to some extent by statutes. When they have heard all the facts of the case, a jury retires to consider their verdict. At this point, jury members (jurors) are not allowed to communicate with anyone other than their fellow jurors, the judge and a court usher until after the verdict is delivered. They are also forbidden by the Contempt of Court Act 1981 from revealing anything that was said or done during their deliberations. This makes any research into the discussions of the jury a very difficult matter. Always keep control over who has access to the supplies in the office. If everyone starts helping themselves to new supplies whenever the mood strikes, stock levels will soon be in disarray and crucial items may run out sooner than expected. To avoid this, carry out a physical stock check at least once per month. 4. Democratic republic based on an extended territory divided into states with representatives. House of Representatives and a Senate with two year term limits. Motion – An application to a court requesting something be done in the client’s favour. Usually done after legal proceedings have been commenced but before trial.