Receiving stolen property is against the law and is typically defined as someone purchasing or obtaining possession of items that have been stolen by someone else. Pleadings: The court documents filed with the court by the parties in a civil or criminal case. For example: motion to dismiss; motion for modification. Either party to a civil case may appeal to a higher court against the decision. Equity – The side of the court that hears and decides cases based upon general unwritten rules of fairness as opposed to the rules of common law. Equity courts award non-monetary remedies in contrast to courts of law, which award monetary remedies. The person who starts a civil case is called a claimant, and he or she has the burden of proving that, more probably than not, the other party (the defendant) committed a civil wrong. If the claimant is successful, the usual remedy is damages: a sum of money paid by the defendant to the claimant. Other remedies, such as a court order that prohibits a person from behaving in a certain way, are available in some circumstances. During the subsequent 216 years, political awakening has spread gradually but inexorably like an ink blot. Europe of 1848, and more generally the nationalist movements of the late 19th and early 20 centuries, reflected the new politics of populist passions and growing mass commitment. The Criminal Division deals with children and young people aged between 10 and 18 accused of committing a crime. The representative of the bankruptcy estate who exercises statutory powers, principally for the benefit of the unsecured creditors, under the general supervision of the court and the direct supervision of the U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator. The trustee is a private individual or corporation appointed in all chapter 7, chapter 12, and chapter 13 cases and some chapter 11 cases. The trustee’s responsibilities include reviewing the debtor’s petition and schedules and bringing actions against creditors or the debtor to recover property of the bankruptcy estate. In chapter 7, the trustee liquidates property of the estate, and makes distributions to creditors. Trustees in chapter 12 and 13 have similar duties to a chapter 7 trustee and the additional responsibilities of overseeing the debtor’s plan, receiving payments from debtors, and disbursing plan payments to creditors. If, at any point during your case, you are dissatisfied with your appointed counsel and come up with the funds (perhaps from family or friends) to hire a lawyer of your choosing, you have a right to change lawyers. However, if you do so close to trial, be aware that even if your new lawyer asks for a delay in order to prepare, the court does not have to grant that request.