Different from the People’s Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vilma Espin Guilloys is the only Cuban woman that has participated in government affairs in Cuba. provisional remedy: A temporary court order to protect someone from further or irreparable damage while further legal action is pending. For example, a temporary restraining order is a provisional remedy to help keep someone safe until a hearing to decide if a permanent restraining order is needed; likewise, a temporary injunction to stop the destruction of a building can keep it from being destroyed while the court decides whether it is a landmark. In Canada, the word “lawyer” only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec , have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called “barristers and solicitors”, but should not be referred to as “attorneys”, since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney However, in Quebec, civil law advocates (or avocats in French ) often call themselves “attorney” and sometimes “barrister and solicitor” in English, and all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practicing in French, are addressed with the honorific title, “Me.” or ” Maître “. In other words, the economic crisis poses two major social threats to the national security” (i.e., imperial status) of the United States. Of key importance is that America and other western nations may lose control of their colonial possessions and interests in the developing world – Africa, South America and Asia – as the people in those regions, the most politically awakened” in the world, can cause regime-threatening instability” as the prospects of riots, rebellion and revolution expose the failure of their national leaders and governance structures. When President Fidel Ramos started his administration in 1992, the country had already started feeling the effects of power supply deficiencies, with major areas already experiencing power interruptions. The power crisis caused a slowdown in the national economy for nearly three years and prodded the government to initiate major reforms in order to rehabilitate the energy sector (Viray 1998, p.461-90). In response to a power supply crisis, Ramos revived the plans to liberalize the oil industry that were cut short during the Aquino administration due to Gulf crisis. In its purest form, Communism refers to the idea of common, public ownership of the economy, including infrastructure, utilities, and means of production. Communism, as idealized by thinkers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, denotes an absence of class divisions, which inherently requires the subversion of the ruling class by the working class. As such, communism often incorporates the idea of revolutionary action against unequal rule. Communism often positions itself as a counterpoint to the economic stratification underlying capitalism. This resistance to stratification sometimes also takes the form of a single-state authority, one in which political opposition or dissidence may be restricted. This may manifest in some communist states as a more authoritarian form of governance, as typified by the Soviet brand of communism that swept the globe during the mid-20th century.

The law is made by parliament and is interpreted and defined by the courts. The different types of law are called statute law (or legislation), and common law (or judge-made law). I think what I like about Bernie is his views of the social safety net. I wouldn’t say he thinks government should control all industry. Instead he’s taking a look at these Nordic countries and taking what works, and attempting to adapt that to the social and government constructs in America. Really his views of socialism apply most heavily to health care and education, which are the places the free market fall short and disproportionally support the wealthy. All courts (and those tribunals that are not merely administrative but exercise the judicial power of the State) are protected by the law of contempt. At common law, only courts of record have an inherent power to punish for contempt and their powers of punishment vary according to their status as “superior” (e.g. Crown Courts) or “inferior” (e.g. magistrates’ court) courts. That’s a tough question to answer succinctly, actually. The best way I can explain it is that it’s an economic philosophy that revolves around shared sacrifice, equality for all, and a vital social safety net. It is not an economic system. Rather, it is a set of ideals and policies that are put forth by lawmakers, such as unemployment benefits, welfare programs, universal healthcare, etc. The underlying economic system is capitalism. Sound familiar? Well, it should because it is what’s known as a social democracy. It’s also arguably what we have in America. While our system doesn’t go as far as other nations (ex: universal healthcare), it is quite similar. In her compelling account of global justice activists’ prefigurative politics, Marianne Maeckelbergh (2011) rejected the opposition between prefiguration and strategy that scholars like Breines (1989) and Epstein (1991) had taken as unavoidable. Activists in the global justice movement were not seeking to advance a single set of goals, Maeckelbergh argued. They refused current forms of governance, but they recognized that there was not one obvious alternative. Instead, they sought to create multiple and diverse designs for living in their actual practices. They sought to build alternatives in the here and now rather than deferring democracy to some post-revolutionary period. Accordingly, Maeckelbergh argued, their success should not be measured by standard indices of organizational success. While Anderson specifically explores how inter-Hispanic affairs in the Caribbean and Catalonia can bear on national struggles in the Philippines, authors of the Anarchism and Syndicalism in the Colonial and Postcolonial World, 1870-1940 take on a more ambitious project to establish connections between pre-World War II anarchist and syndicalist movements in the colonial world to colonialism, national liberation, imperialism, state formation, and social revolution. They highlight relevant historical experiences that may contribute to social movements worldwide, including methods of struggle to advance their agendas. Specifically, they investigate how anarchists and syndicalists engaged with imperialism, anti-colonial movements, and the national question, given the racial and ethnic divisions in different countries. In the preface of the book, Anderson writes, the papers in this volume certainly demonstrate that anarchism and syndicalism were important currents in anti-imperial … struggles in the late-19th and early to mid-20th centuries” (xxxii). Anderson expresses particular intrigue with the authors’ discussion on alliances forged between anarchists and nationalists, especially where anarchists were themselves ‘natives’” (xxiv).

Damages – Money awarded by a court to a person injured by the unlawful act or negligence of another person. Me on the left on the motorway services, with my friends Michelle (sitting next to me), Jenny and Boz. Staples keeps businesses running smoothly, gives students the tools they need to excel in the classroom, and keeps households organized with products such as office supplies, furniture, and electronic goods. At that time, in 1989, Yugoslavia had a number of advantages with respect to the Central East European countries. Thanks to market-oriented reforms applied in the past, the Yugoslav economy had already implemented many reforms required by the transition to market economy, including price liberalisation, foreign trade liberalisation, or reforms of the banking system. The economy was highly decentralised, especially since the 1974 Constitution transferred substantial economic powers to the single republics and local authorities. Class action: Legal action taken by a number of different persons where the facts and the defendants are similar. Class action lawsuits may occur, for example, after a public transport accident or in the case of a faulty drug, where all the victims sue the same defendant. Most modern nations—including the United States—are democratic republics with a constitution, which can be amended by a popularly elected government. This comparison therefore contrasts the form of government in most countries today with a theoretical construct of a “pure democracy”, mainly to highlight the features of a republic. Prosecutor – A trial lawyer representing the government in a criminal case and the interests of the state in civil matters. In criminal cases, the prosecutor has the responsibility of deciding who and when to prosecute. Its advocates propose labour organization as a means to create the foundations of a trade union centered anarchist society within the current system and bring about social revolution. You, who are so liberal and so humane, who have such an exaggerated adoration of culture that it verges on affectation, you pretend to forget that you own colonies and that in them men are massacred in your name. Fanon reveals to his comrades above all to some of them who are rather too Westernized — the solidarity of the people of the mother country and of their representatives in the colonies. On the international level, it seems to us that the following factors, at least, are unfavorable to national liberation movements: the neocolonial situation of a great number of states which, having won political independence, are now tending to join up with others already in that situation.