Found in Central Africa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is a country troubled by its history of war and violence that in some way severely affected its cost-effective and social position right at this moment. Constitution of the Disabled Peoples’ International (1981) – Revised April 1993. A judgment entered in favor of one party when the opposing party fails to appear or participate in a legal action. For example, when a defendant fails to file an answer within the time allowed or fails to appear at trial or otherwise provide a defense. Throughout the sources analyzing the impact of the Indian Boarding School Movement on Haudenosaunee life, two divergent arguments arise in the study of the movement’s effects on Haudenosaunee women’s’ roles. Whereas empirical historians and feminist historians argue that the impact of the IBSM on Haudenosaunee women’s roles was minimal and parallels the greater assimilation movement of the same era, Marxist and ethno-historians argue the IBSM was a highly accountable factor in the perceived shift in Haudenosaunee women’s roles. 32 Historians such as Tom Porter, Sally Roesch Wagner, David Wallace Adams, and Alice Fletcher argue these two contrasting perspectives using an array of primary source material often reflecting the author’s specific political agenda and personal perspectives. In an investigation of the impact of the IBSM on the roles of Haudenosaunee women within their communities, a careful analysis of primary sources may be used to validate the arguments of empirical historians who have previously written on the subject of the IBSM’s impact on Haudenosaunee community recognition of traditionally held socio-political women’s’ roles. Alice Walker is best known for her work as the author and Pulitzer Prize winner of the Color Purple. Eventually turned into a movie starring Oprah, the Color Purple depicted the struggle of African American women. Despite being shot in the right by a BB gun as a child, Alice persevered to become the valedictorian of her high school and then attended Spelman College in Atlanta. In criminal law, the constitutional guarantee that a defendant will receive a fair and impartial trial. In civil law, the legal rights of someone who confronts an adverse action threatening liberty or property. Wartime brought new problems. although avoiding lines were augmented by a rolling connection to the main line and Darlington over the Wensleydale line. A steeply graded link was made from the low level to the main line. It was unique in having a bridge under the 1882 Hawes branch tracks with a mere two foot height difference. As the link was only to be used if bomb damage rendered the station inoperable, the ‘bridge’ was bolted in place, to be rolled aside for Hawes traffic. The measures never needed to be used in earnest, however, although not removed for a long time after the war. Pacific classes were ‘harnessed’ for military purposes on troop trains as well as the V2, which also saw service alongside Robert Riddles’ Austerity Class 2-8-0 on heavy freight (military hardware and vehicles).
Through an analysis of the primary sources documenting the IBSM, one may deduce that in an investigation of the impact the IBSM played in the lives of Haudenosaunee women, the primary source evidence confirms the validity of empirical historians’ arguments of the IBSM’s minimal impact of the IBSM on the traditional political, social, spiritual, and economic roles of Haudenosaunee women within their families and communities. Although the IBSM did have a significant impact in the lives of the Haudenosaunee, the impact of the IBSM on Haudenosaunee women’s roles within their families and communities was minimal, particularly in comparison to that of the Reservation Movement of the years immediately preceding the IBSM. The IBSM failed to accomplish its goal of eradicating the Haudenosaunee and other Native American nations of their cultural links to values of matriarchy, communalism, and cooperation which conflicted with white-American values of patriarchy, individualism, and capitalism, and women’s roles among the Haudenosaunee persisted through the IBSM. However, the importance of the roles held by Haudenosaunee women was significantly diminished by the Reservation Movement’s successful enforcement of occupational shifts among the Haudenosaunee. While the roles held by women persisted, the importance of such political and spiritual roles of women diminished as increasing interaction with surrounding white communities became necessary following the shifting landscape of the Haudenosaunee people resulting from the Reservation Movement. While Haudenosaunee women during the IBSM appeared to have lost their heightened status in Haudenosaunee society relative to the position held by white women of the same period as noted by such prominent ethnohistorians as Arthur Parker, William Fenton, William Beauchamp, and Dean Snow, this shift in the status of Haudenosaunee women can be linked more heavily to the lingering effects of the Reservation Movement in New York State and Ontario than to the IBSM in the American Northeast. Despite theÂ Brown v Board of EducationÂ Supreme Court decisions to desegregate schools in the mid-1950s, de facto segregation had only worsened in New York schools. This resulted in worsened wealth disparities and the early expressions of a school-to-prison pipeline. In response, the Citywide Committee for Integrated Schools (CCIS) called for a one-day boycott of New York City public schools in 1964, which resulted in half a million students boycotting their classes in favor of attending major marches and pickets across the city. Despite requests by the CCIS, the UFT leadership refused to join.
Our government seems to do a good job in fulfilling its limited powers as set forth in the Bible and the Constitution. The federal level provides a strong military, and the state and local governments provide law and order. However, besides being inefficient and not well-managed, our federal government consistently oversteps the boundaries defined by the Constitution and the Bible. It has expanded far beyond its appropriate role, always doing more than it’s legally permitted to do, and consequently burdening all of us with taxes that are far too high. When our state and local governments follow this pattern as well, the burden on the people is overwhelming. This is obvious when we consider the sheer size of our governmental bodies. It is estimated that our 90,000 government units (including cities, counties, etc.) employ some 20 million people with a payroll of over $600 billion, including some $150B for the payroll for the 3 million civilian employees at the federal level alone. Although these payrolls are only a small percentage of government spending, government employees do add much overhead to the tax burden. During the first phase of the global economic crisis in December of 2008, the IMF warned governments of the prospect of violent unrest on the streets.â€ The head of the IMF warned that, Violent protests could break out in countries worldwide if the financial system was not restructured to benefit everyone rather than a small elite.â€ Naturally, the IMF director leaves out the fact that he is part of that small elite and that the IMF functions for the benefit of that very same elite. There is virtually not an international economic or social-health comparator that SA has not sagged against. Nor is there a moral or ethical standard that we have not betrayed. Socialism’s advocates today promote it as a near-panacea. It’s a possible answer to the climate catastrophe,â€ writes a commentator in theÂ Guardian. It wouldÂ remedy the systemic deprivation of people of color,â€ says Connie M. Razza, director of policy and research at the think tank Demos. It would go far beyond political reform to reshape the basic structures that disempower people and keep them in wage slavery,â€ says Julia Salazar, a New York state senator and democratic socialist. 1.7.8 The District Courts and the MagistratesÂ´ Courts share the same powers over specific matters such as contractual or tortious claims for a debt, demand or damage and in actions for the recovery of monies. The jurisdictional monetary limits in civil matters for the MagistratesÂ´ Courts and District Courts are $60,000 and $250,000 respectively. The courts also differ in terms of criminal jurisdiction and sentencing powers. Under the Criminal Procedure Code (Cap 68, 2012 Rev Ed), the Magistrates’ Courts have the power to try any offence for which the maximum term of imprisonment provided by law does not exceed 5 years or which is punishable with a fine only. As for the Districts Courts, the stipulated maximum term of imprisonment is 10 years. A District Court may pass a sentence of imprisonment not exceeding 10 years; fine not exceeding $30,000; caning not exceeding 12 strokes; and any other lawful sentence. The sentencing powers of a Magistrates’ Courts are as follows: imprisonment not exceeding 3 years; fine not exceeding $10,000; caning not exceeding 6 strokes; and any other lawful sentence.