A crime is anything that is illegal. You write that “corporate greed has finished America off” but that is not what is causing America’s problems. The average corporation makes 5% profit per year. There is nothing wrong with that. That is how you get people to voluntarily invest money, by giving them the hope of a return on their investment. Under socialism you just take people’s money at the barrel of a gun and let the state spend it. How that is supposed to be ‘better’ or even more ‘fair’ I do not understand. 23 Tyrone Kirchengast, The Victim in Criminal Law and Justice (Palgrave MacMillan, 2006) 29. On the basis of this, we can state that national liberation is the phenomenon in which a given socio-economic whole rejects the negation of its historical process. In other words, the national liberation of a people is the regaining of the historical personality of that people, its return to history through the destruction of the imperialist domination to which it was subjected. Magistrates are the presiding officers in the lower courts. The regional court has jurisdiction within a particular regional division and the district court within a particular magisterial district. They only function as courts of first instance. As an exception, they can hear appeals from the courts of chiefs and headmen. In practice, regional courts only try criminal cases, while district courts try criminal and civil cases. The Magistrate’s Commission deals with the appointment, promotion, transfer or dismissal of or disciplinary steps against magistrates. The leading case on this particular principle is the Cutting case in 1886″ which concerned the publication in Texas of a statement defamatory to a Mexican by an American citizen. Cutting was arrested while in Mexico and convicted of the offence (a crime under Mexican law) with Mexico maintaining its right to jurisdiction upon the basis of the passive person- ality principle. The United States strongly protested against this, but there was an inconclusive end to the incident, the charges being withdrawn by the injured party. Evidence demands are within the sovereign inquisitorial function of the court â€” not within the lawyers’ role. Defendants do not get to choose their appointed counsel. The court will appoint the local public defender’s office or a local private attorney from an approved panel. If the court appoints the public defender’s office, that office will assign one of its attorneys to the case. If the court appointed a private attorney from its panel, it may assign a lawyer from a list of attorneys on duty that day for court appointments.
The wider the net is thrown, the less people agree, and with less agreement on values and ends, coercion and force will be used by those in power. This is the reason America was supposed to have strong rights for individual states, and local control over schools and municipal concernsâ€”away from the long arm of the central government. Common ideals inspire people to come together and in order that this togetherness leads to enhanced quality of life, there should be vigorous efforts to remove any obstacles. There are bound to be differences as to the methods for reaching the goals but the basic idea that others too are genuinely interested in the goals must be understood. In this context, democratic norms are not merely for just political settings but are applicable to other areas of human activities as well. They invest in the community a sense of belonging together, to understand others’ point of view so that harmonious working together for welfare of all is the concern of all. The aims are laudable. It is not mere head counting to settle vexatious disputes. It is putting heads together to find solutions to complex problems and assure that dignity, fairplay and justice would be ensured to all. It may sound platonic but it is true that very ignorant people have been inspired to raise themselves to very great heights through proper lead given by their committed leaders. When Abraham Lincoln declared that the then civil war would decide the great issue that all men were created equal, he laid down a noble norm implicitly followed by people elsewhere too. People like Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela and a host of others had this passion for serving the common people. We find in all the newly independent countries in the post-second world war era, people clinging to the liberalist ideals and democracy of the European hue. And to overcome violent means to sustain democratic practices, states have carefully incorporated in their constitutions the basic principles which would guide the people in active participation in community life. In his 1875 writing, Critique of the Gotha Program, Marx summarized the communist philosophy in this way: From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.â€ By contrast, socialism is based on the idea that people will be compensated based on their level of individual contribution to the economy. Modern communism manifests as a descendant from Soviet communism â€” both ideologically and materially â€” and is sometimes identified as the Marxist-Leninist variation on communism. Countries that retain a single-party, Marxist-Leninist rulership include Cuba, Laos, Vietnam, and the People’s Republic of China. Each of these nations adopted this form of government at the height of the Cold War â€” between the 1940s and 1960s â€” under the auspices of Russian influence. While the Soviet communist government crumbled in 1991, these nations remain committed to their own version of the Marxist-Leninist ideology. Though North Korea refers to itself as communist, the singularity of its rulership hews much closer to dictatorship.