It is not difficult to describe how ancient Greek democracy worked. An official of the Judicial branch with authority to decide lawsuits brought before courts. Used generically, the term judge may also refer to all judicial officers, including Supreme Court justices. Plaintiff – A person who brings a lawsuit or action; the party who complains or sues in a civil action. Allan McGregor- I wholeheartedly agree with you about the implications of the French Revolution. It is the father of all Godless political systems. Some equate the French and American revolutions but they mean far different things, as you know. In America, God gives human beings rights, which the state should honor. In France, the state gives the rights. What the state giveth, the state may take away. In 2007, qualifications for office equipment to be rated with the ENERGY STAR changed, which should lead you to consider trading up on older models. ENERGY STAR equipment on average are 25% more efficient, power down automatically when they are not being used, print double sided to reduce paper waste and run cooler yet again saving you on cooling costs. Prosecutors should have regard to the Reporting Restrictions Guide, Reporting Restrictions in the Criminal Courts April 2015 (Revised May 2016) that provides a practical guide for judges and the media on the statutory and common law principles which should be applied. Part 6 CrimPR applies. Even the far left wing militant radical godless communist extreme extremists at Politico said of the Democrat debates recently: These candidates aren’t explicitly advocating open borders, but taken together, the policies advocated amount to almost the same thing. Now add to that the universal embrace of health care for the undocumented. As a political matter, it is an open invitation to President Donald Trump and his campaign to brand the Democrats as a party offering free stuff” to millions of people who broke the law to get here in the first place.” Amen. Plaintiff – A person who initiates a civil lawsuit. Nolle : Short for nollo prosequi, which means “no prosecution”. A disposition of a criminal or motor vehicle case where the prosecutor agrees to drop the case against the defendant but keeps the right to reopen the case and prosecute at any time during the next thirteen months. The nolle is entered on the court record and the defendant is released from custody. If the defendant stays out of trouble during the thirteen months, the case is removed from the official court records. Capitalism refers to a form of economy in which production is driven by private ownership. Capitalism promotes the idea of open competition and extends from the belief that a free market economy — one with limited regulatory control — is the most efficient form of economic organization. Its advocates argue that capitalism promotes economic growth, improved standards of living, higher productivity, and broader prosperity, whereas critics argue that capitalism inherently promotes inequality, exploitation of the labor class, and unsustainable use of resources and land.

The foregoing, and the reality of our times, allow us to state that the history of one human group or of humanity goes through at least three stages. The first is characterized by a low level of productive forces — of man’s domination over nature; the mode of production is of a rudimentary character, private appropriation of the means of production does not yet exist. Legal professional privilege: Confidential communications between a lawyer and client may not be revealed in court unless the client, expressly or impliedly, waives the privilege. The communications must relate to court proceedings or intended litigation. The National Assembly – according to Vietnam’s Constitution – should be the most powerful branch in the government because it is supposedly formed by the people, of the people, and for the people.” However, due to the Party’s total control of the electoral process and the complicity of the National Assembly, Vietnamese people do not have much to say in their country’s affairs. However, in 1938, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that there will be no general common law.” So, from that year forward, federal courts deciding issues that originated in states had to look to the state judicial interpretations of those matters. Telephone: office equipment also includes the telephone system which is also available with diverse functions. Though mobile phones are more in use these days, a telephone system has its own significance in an office environment. America has never been a Democracy but it needs to become one. It claims to be a Republic but we are actually an Oligarchy and no different then Rome when it had a Senate. Until we take the money out of Politics nothing will change. Or the economically devastated rural areas, where small farmers struggle to survive in a market dominated by giant agri-business corporations. That’s why the only hope I can see for solving the monumental problems facing an increasingly obsolete American working class is the Democratic Party under the leadership of a humane visionary like President Obama. Felonies are punishable by a prison term of more than a year, while misdemeanors are punishable by a prison term of less than a year. Criminal laws differ from state to state. The author’s critique of social democracy assumes the tradition is exhausted. However, the “second way”, as Hamilton labels traditional social democracy, has far from outlived its usefulness. Equality of opportunity in education can only be restored by increased funding to public schools and universities, aimed at lowering student-teacher ratios, increasing subject choice and improving infrastructure.

The only type of civil contempt the magistrates’ court can deal with is the unauthorised use of disclosed prosecution material under s.17 of the Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996. The maximum penalty the magistrates’ court can impose for this is 6 months’ imprisonment or a fine up to £5,000. Civil law in other European nations, on the other hand, is generally traced back to the code of laws compiled by the Roman Emperor Justinian around 600 C.E. Authoritative legal codes with roots in these laws (or others) then developed over many centuries in various countries, leading to similar legal systems, each with their own sets of laws. Locus standi: (Latin: place of standing) Person’s right to take an action or be heard by a court. The public will only achieve true freedom when social and economic inequalities are minimized. All citizens within a Unitary State should have equal rights. Heck, I voted for Republicans before I noticed changes which were disturbing. R.R. put Powell as head of the Joint Chiefs, for goodness sake. But overtime, the admission to leadership post in the military has not been available to Blacks on a regular basis according to some newspaper articles I read. In defense of our Armed Services, they are naming an aircraft carrier after Doris James, a seaman of color who defended Pearl Harbor. And they are making more changes. Good for them. Many American socialists of the turn of the twentieth century fit into a radically democratic, republican framework. As Nick Salvatore has argued, the socialism of the most revered leader of American socialists at the time, Eugene V. Debs, can be embedded within it. Salvatore aptly titled his authoritative 1982 biography Eugene V. Debs: Citizen and Socialist , for Debs was a socialist who put democratic citizenship and republican liberty first. By contrast to the statutory codifications of common law, some laws are purely statutory, and may create a new cause of action beyond the common law. An example is the tort of wrongful death, which allows certain persons, usually a spouse, child or estate, to sue for damages on behalf of the deceased. There is no such tort in English common law; thus, any jurisdiction that lacks a wrongful death statute will not allow a lawsuit for the wrongful death of a loved one. Where a wrongful death statute exists, the damages or compensation available are limited to those outlined in the statute (typically, an upper limit on the amount of damages). Courts generally interpret statutes that create new causes of action narrowly – that is, limited to their precise terms – because the courts generally recognize the legislature as being supreme in deciding the reach of judge made law unless such statute should violate some “second order” constitutional law provision (compare judicial activism).

Many elements of modern Haudenosaunee culture such as performance theater also echo the cultural continuity of Pre-IBSM women’s roles into the twenty-first century. For example, the Kaha:Wi” performance of Santee Smith of the Mohawk Nation is a nearly all female cast of Native American women performing an interpretive dance series depicting the Haudenosaunee creation story through the lens of women’s’ importance to Haudenosaunee spirituality. As shown through the Kaha:Wi” performance program, 30 Haudenosaunee women have retained their spiritual position of elevated importance in Haudenosaunee society (relative to that of white American women of the same eras in American history) propelled by such aspects of Haudenosaunee spiritual beliefs as women’s reproductive importance,female gender assignment of the four directions on a compass as the four sisters,” the female gender assignment of natural elements such as Grandmother Moon,” 31 and the importance of a matrilineal society to Haudenosaunee community organization. In almost all the countries of the world, the masses lack political consciousness. Cunning, erudite politicians take advantage of this shortcoming to confuse people and attain power. They resort to immoral practices such as bribery, vote rigging, booth capturing and buying of votes, and stand unopposed for elections. Consequently, the standard of morality in society is declining, and honest, competent people are relegated to the background. Moral leaders have less chance to win elections because election results are rigged through financial inducements, intimidation and brute force. In the present democratic system, all sorts of immoral and corrupt practices are given the opportunity to pervert society. The very nature of the present system is that it favors the capitalists and exposes the administration to immoral and corrupt forces. Lawyers are paid for their work in a variety of ways. In private practice, they may work for an hourly fee according to a billable hour structure, 180 a contingency fee 181 (usually in cases involving personal injury ), or a lump sum payment if the matter is straightforward. Normally, most lawyers negotiate a written fee agreement up front and may require a non-refundable retainer in advance. Recent studies suggest that when lawyers charge a fixed-fee rather than billing by the hour, they work less hard on behalf of clients and client get worse outcomes. 182 183 In many countries there are fee-shifting arrangements by which the loser must pay the winner’s fees and costs; the United States is the major exception, 184 although in turn, its legislators have carved out many exceptions to the so-called “American Rule” of no fee shifting.

preventive war begins with no grounds in international law. The challenge, the treat can be invented or imagined and is not proven or evident. The point is that America calls it a new norm; to do this America has to select a defenseless target e.g. Afghanistan and Latter Iraq; and to prepare the stage for such wars they had to frighten American people that Bin laden or Saddam Hussein are a treat to their existence. American imperialism has deep roots in its history and has close relationship with perception of white supremacy and racism. This ideology can be traced back to Christian Crusades, latter colonization of African countries and Latin America. The Declaration of Independence and latter the American constitution confirms this supremacy. Regarding U.S. -Indian treaties, white supremacy was the rationalization and ideology behind theft of Native American lands. So, the very origins of the United States are imperialistic. If you already have a computer, a word processing program and a printer, your start-up cost is minimal. You can start your secretarial business and provide typing work with some basic office supplies and buy additional equipment or software later when a project requires it. Jury Charge: The judge’s formal instructions on the law to the jury before it begins deliberations. Yugoslavs also worked in an environment which was more democratic than in other socialist countries, because self-management, despite its limitations, for many years did give workers the feeling that they could participate both in decision-making and in enterprise profits (Uvalić, 1992, pp. 214-215). The Yugoslav experience was a concrete and unique example of economic democracy applied to the whole economy; The Yugoslavs have shown that democratic control of the workplace is feasible” (Estrin, 1983, p. ix). But King didn’t publicly identify as a member of an American socialist party. You write, Your belief that globalism aims to eliminate national borders is your own delusion.” You think is just means trade. Nonsense. There has been global trade for a long time. I have a handy thing known as a dictionary. GLOBALISM: 1) the attitude or policy of placing the interests of the entire world above those of individual nations. the elimination of borders being the ultimate goal. 2) a political principle which transcends Nationalism. INTERNATIONALISM. ECHR article 6 also has inherent limits. While important specific guarantees are provided for fairness in criminal proceedings, its wider protection is expressly limited to the determination of ‘civil rights and obligations’. This protects administrative decisions that affect rights but are not court or tribunal proceedings. However, some public decisions are outside the scope of protection offered by article 6, including, for example, expulsion, citizenship or nationality decisions and tax disputes. In this regard, the protection offered by article 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial) – which has no such limitation – is important (see, for example, LH Bishop Electric Co Ltd and others v HMRC Commissioners 2013 UKFTT 522 (TC) ). If successful, a Charter challenge pursuant to the European Communities Act 1972 (ECA) might see incompatible primary legislation disapplied, a remedy not available to either the common law or the HRA (Benkharbouche and Janah v Embassy of the Republic of Sudan and Libya 2015 EWCA Civ 33 ).