The transformation of the very content of the concept of security, whose formulation was based on the analysis of safety risks and forms of threats to security of the people, property and the state as a whole, began internationally after the end of the Cold War. Participatory democrats in the 1960s differed both in their relationship to publics outside the movement and in their views of leadership. Activists in the civil rights, new left, anti-Vietnam war, and women’s liberation movements sought to prefigure an alternative to a political system they perceived as democratic in name only. For most of the decade, however, they did not see themselves as threatened with extinction. To the contrary, they imagined their radically democratic practices spreading among people like themselves. Given the number of mobilizable young people, this was not unrealistic. Indeed, swathes of 1960s movements as well as whole urban neighborhoods were populated by groups that operated as collectives ( Rothschild & Whitt, 1989 ). In both civil and common law countries, lawyers and judges play an important role. Maeckelbergh, M. (2016). The Prefigurative Turn: The Time and Place of Social Movement Practice. In A. C. Dinerstein, (Ed.) Social Sciences for an Other Politics Women Theorizing Without Parachutes, pp. 121-135. London: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. Thus, proclaiming a right to self-determination” for people everywhere became, in fact, a means of constructing nation-state power structures which the western nations became not only instrumental in building, but in exerting hegemony over. To control people, one must construct institutions of control. Nations like Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Kuwait, etc., did not exist prior to World War I. Don’t they do that fairly routinely? Isn’t this the very thing Republicans claim is a GOOD thing? That a government can occasionally decide in direct opposition to the majority? I’ve certainly been reading that from the right a lot lately. And Virginia, as well. The GOP could take a more immediate electoral hit due to the party’s fixation with the ACA. Because of the shutdown caused by the GOP’s Obamacare obsession, Ken Cuccinelli, the tea-party-fancied Republican candidate for governor in Virginia, will probably have a tougher time catching Terry McAuliffe, the Democratic candidate who currently leads in that race. (The election is next month.) Plenty of federal workers live in Virginia, and the shutdown is not going to endear tea partyish Republicans to many of them. One of the few things they could not make for themselves was auto parts. My family was in that business for generations and while working in the family auto parts store, I had the pleasure of becoming acquainted with several members of the House of David. They were sincere, honorable chaps.