Clive Hamilton’s Quarterly Essay, “What’s Left? Changing Labour Relations in Asia at the International Institute of Social History. Overview of this international research program, online research papers (PDF). The Law Council made comprehensive submissions to that inquiry and, subsequently, to the Attorney-General, Robert McClelland, outlining the fundamental importance of client legal privilege to the administration of justice. There is no point blaming the tragedies of Socialism on the flaws or corruption of particular leaders. Any system which allows some people to exercise unbridled power over other people is an open invitation to abuse, whether that system is called Slavery or Socialism or something else. One of the notable differences between civil law and criminal law is the punishment. In case of criminal law a person found guilty is punished by incarceration in a prison, a fine, or in some occasion’s death penalty. Whereas, in case of civil law the losing party has to reimburse the plaintiff, the amount of loss which is determined by the judge and is called punitive damage. A criminal litigation is more serious than civil litigation in that criminal defendants have more rights and protections than a civil defendant. Strong, Anna Louise (1885-1970) – journalist, socialist, and member of the No-Conscription League, she contributed poetry to Mother Earth. She supported anarchist Louise Olivereau in her opposition to the draft during World War I (Strongand Keyssar 68). The United States Constitution states that an individual charged with a crime is presumed innocent until proven guilty. In addition, if an individual is charged with a crime for which loss of freedom may be imposed as a penalty, the accused has the right to have a court appointed attorney if the individual cannot afford an attorney. The government attorney is sometimes called “the prosecutor” or “District Attorney” or “U.S. Attorney.” Penalties for committing a crime vary with the seriousness of the crime and may include death (for aggravated murder), imprisonment, probation, or fines. The legislature sets forth sentencing guidelines, which help determine the punishment. Around the world there are countries where people are hungry for news from somewhere other than their own leaders. Such a country is North Korea. There nothing is reported on except repeated tales of how great the leader is and what he has achieved against his enemies, chief of which is the United States. Civil systems owe their existence to the Napoleonic Code, which revolutionized the law by establishing methodical administration of justice based on extensive, written rules.
Out of this emerged the great European empires: the Portuguese, the Spanish, the Dutch, and later the French, British and German empires, which created the first global political economy with the Atlantic Slave Trade, trading weapons and goods in exchange for captured slaves, fueling internal civil wars among the large African empires to feed them a supply of slaves which they then took to the Americas to use as a labour force. 94. F. Brooks, â€˜American Individualist Anarchism: What it was and Why it Failed’, Journal of Political Ideologies, 1 (1) (1996), p. 85. The City and District Councils, being quasi-government institutions, provide documents classified as government publications. These include building codes, educational development, health and sanitation, regulations on waste disposal, use of firearms and fire machines. Also there are government departments which provide statistical information on a vast range of economic, industrial and social demographic data. Of central importance are Statistics Sierra Leone (formerly Central Statistics Office-CSO), responsible for national population census and home surveys; the Office of Births and Deaths which registers and produces annual statistics of births and deaths in the country; the Office of the Registrar General responsible for statutory registration of marriages, patents and trademarks; the Chamber of Commerce which specializes on business information. These offices bring together important economic and social statistics supplied by government departments. Other important government departments are the Meteorological Office, which continues to give pertinent weather information, and the National Archives, which serves as repository of all non-current government publications inclusive of national newspapers. The afore-mentioned government publications vary in size and length. Written by experts in the subject, government publications are not only authoritative but also timely published and deal with topics of current interest. Their purpose, according to Katz (1969), is to provide information and answer questions and not to provoke discussion or organizational cataloging and administration. They are useful primary reference sources. The common law requires all courts and tribunals to comply with the rules of natural justice (also called â€˜procedural fairness’). These principles have developed to ensure that a person receives a fair hearing. A legal finding by a judge or jury that a person accused of a crime is not guilty.
Buildreps ~ Thank you for taking the time to read my article. I appreciate your astute observations and you ask a great question. Socialism is being indoctrinated into our youth through Government Schools. Just the other day, a new survey found that Millennials favor Socialism over Capitalism – by a slim margin but disturbing nonetheless. Although the Republicans are now talking of changing the structure and message of their Party in order to accommodate these burgeoning Minority-Majorities, they are still off message for they still feel and think that the poor are not so important, and we are at present further away from the 2016 elections. As for now, their efforts become laughable and transparent as to their intention: to keep of favoring and working hard for the top one percent of super-rich Americans. Accompanying this growth was a liberal, progressivism with labor unions dominating the public sector and an unquenchable thirst for big government spending. California’s budget has doubled from $59 billion to $120 billion in the decade 1995 to 2005 alone. To feed this spending binge California has systematically increased taxes on individuals to 9.3% and to 8.84% on corporations. Despite its best efforts to expand its tax revenues, California is projecting a budget deficit as high as $25 billion. There is even some talk of a $40 billion deficit, with a total public debt now approaching $500 billion. Its freeways are crumbling, public sector college tuition is up 30% and unemployment stands at 14.3%, 4.6% higher than the national average. California’s economy is collapsing and citizens are voting with their feet. From 2000 to 2009 more than 1.5 million individuals have left the state and this trend is accelerating. As we barreled down the highway deeper into the South I reflected on the thesis of Dr. William J. Wilson – my old colleague at the University of Massachusetts, who is now Professor of Social Policy at Harvard’s Kennedy School – in his book The Declining significance of Race.â€ Although Professor Wilson suffered a great deal of abuse when he reported that race was no longer the all powerful determinant of one’s life chances in American society that it once was, these people supplied irrefutable evidence for his claim. The first steps to fundamentally change the economic system in Yugoslavia, in the direction of private ownership and a mixed market economy, were taken in late 1988 (UvaliÄ‡, 1992, p. 182). Starting from November 1988, the government adopted thirty-nine amendments to the Federal Constitution and over twenty new laws which aimed at radically changing of the economic system. Among the announced changes were the removal of existing limits on private property, incentives for the development of the small-scale private sector and the encouragement of entrepreneurial activities through favourable provisions regarding duty-free imports of inputs and technology.