Ukrainians take to the streets: celebrating unity on the day of national independence and demonstrating intentions to protect their economic rights. Protective Order : A criminal court order issued by a judge to protect a family or household member. Amnesty International has received reports that Sri Lankan armed forces screen civilians who have fled the Wanni area, and have detained several people in police custody. Given past experiences, there are credible fears among civilians that those confined in transit centres could be vulnerable to enforced disappearances or extrajudicial executions, as well as increased targeting of persons, including arbitrary detention and harassment on an ethnic basis. There have been reports of several hundred cases of enforced disappearances in Sri Lanka since 2006, many of them in government-controlled areas. Due Process of Law – The right of all persons to receive the guarantees and safeguards of the law and the judicial process. It includes such constitutional requirements as adequate notice of legal proceedings, opportunity to be heard by the judge, assistance of counsel, and the defendants’ rights to remain silent, to a speedy and public trial, to an impartial jury and to confront and secure witnesses. Court Services Officer: A person who assists the judge and oversees cases as they go through the court. The simple answer is that democratic socialists believe in a democracy , while communist forms of government are not democracies. For the first time in history almost all of humanity is politically activated, politically conscious and politically interactive. Global activism is generating a surge in the quest for cultural respect and economic opportunity in a world scarred by memories of colonial or imperial domination. These attitudes continue to linger today. Many conservatives see government as an extension of God (For God and Countryâ€) while many liberals see government as a replacement for God (Democratic Socialist Republicâ€). Some states employ the “lack-of-substantial-capacity” test. The phrase “lacks substantial capacity” is a qualification of the M’Naghten rule and the irresistible-impulse test, both of which require the total absence of capacity. This test also requires a showing of causality. The defense is not established merely by a showing of a mental disease; rather, it is established only if, as a result of the disease, the defendant lacks the substantial capacity that is required in order to hold him or her criminally responsible. For example, pyromania may be a defense to a charge of arson, but it is no defense to a charge of larceny. An Irresistible Impulse arising from anger, jealousy, or a desire for revenge does not excuse a defendant from criminal responsibility unless such emotions are part of the mental disease that caused the crime.
The only type of civil contempt the magistrates’ court can deal with is the unauthorised use of disclosed prosecution material under s.17 of the Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996. The maximum penalty the magistrates’ court can impose for this is 6 months’ imprisonment or a fine up to Â£5,000. Civil law in other European nations, on the other hand, is generally traced back to the code of laws compiled by the Roman Emperor Justinian around 600 C.E. Authoritative legal codes with roots in these laws (or others) then developed over many centuries in various countries, leading to similar legal systems, each with their own sets of laws. Locus standi: (Latin: place of standing) Person’s right to take an action or be heard by a court. The public will only achieve true freedom when social and economic inequalities are minimized. All citizens within a Unitary State should have equal rights. Heck, I voted for Republicans before I noticed changes which were disturbing. R.R. put Powell as head of the Joint Chiefs, for goodness sake. But overtime, the admission to leadership post in the military has not been available to Blacks on a regular basis according to some newspaper articles I read. In defense of our Armed Services, they are naming an aircraft carrier after Doris James, a seaman of color who defended Pearl Harbor. And they are making more changes. Good for them. Many American socialists of the turn of the twentieth century fit into a radically democratic, republican framework. As Nick Salvatore has argued, the socialism of the most revered leader of American socialists at the time, Eugene V. Debs, can be embedded within it. Salvatore aptly titled his authoritative 1982 biography Eugene V. Debs: Citizen and Socialist , for Debs was a socialist who put democratic citizenship and republican liberty first. By contrast to the statutory codifications of common law, some laws are purely statutory, and may create a new cause of action beyond the common law. An example is the tort of wrongful death, which allows certain persons, usually a spouse, child or estate, to sue for damages on behalf of the deceased. There is no such tort in English common law; thus, any jurisdiction that lacks a wrongful death statute will not allow a lawsuit for the wrongful death of a loved one. Where a wrongful death statute exists, the damages or compensation available are limited to those outlined in the statute (typically, an upper limit on the amount of damages). Courts generally interpret statutes that create new causes of action narrowly – that is, limited to their precise terms – because the courts generally recognize the legislature as being supreme in deciding the reach of judge made law unless such statute should violate some “second order” constitutional law provision (compare judicial activism).
In countries where holders of the first law degree traditionally use the title of doctor (e.g. Peru, Brazil, Macau, Portugal, Argentina), J.D. holders who are attorneys will often use the title of doctor as well. 231 It is common for English-language male lawyers to use the honorific suffix “Esq.” (for ” Esquire “). In the United States the style is also used by female lawyers. 1999 – Kosovo. Canada participated in several missions in this region. United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK) 1 liaison officer followed by 1,450 personnel with the NATO Force Kosovo (KFOR). Two aircraft were also used in the Humanitarian Airlift in Support of Kosovar Refugees from April to August 1999. A further 4 personnel served with the United Nations Mine Action Co-ordination Centre in Kosovo for six months from June to December 1999. From January to April 1999 there were 8 personnel serving with the Kosovo Verification Coordination Centre in the Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. Law’s blindfold indicates an objective standard that justice should be impartial and meted out objectively, without fear or favor and regardless of money, wealth, power or identity. This is an ideal that has not been realized even in developed countries like Canada. Statistics, trends and observances reveal disturbing social, economic and judicial disparities. There are practices of selective justice and governance maintaining hierarchies and inequalities in Canada. This progress depends on the concrete possibilities of development of the society’s productive forces and is governed mainly by the nature of the political power ruling the society, that is to say, by the type of state or, if one likes, by the character of the dominant class or classes within the society. Social issues, such as use of drugs, civil liberties, and the role of women; racial issues, involving integration, busing, government aid to minority groups, and urban riots; military issues, involving primarily, of course, the war in Vietnam but also the draft, military spending, military aid programs, and the role of the military-industrial complex more generally. Right-wing students also recognized the same two immediate issues at stake, joining UGEQ to support a new modernizing nationalism Quebec and joining UGEQ to practice student syndicalism in the McGill student society. They resisted both, but it can be clearly demonstrated that it was the student syndicalist philosophy that aroused the strongest and most persistent counter-movements on the right – the response to the Lenihan walkout in February 1965, the mobilization against the tuition fees â€˜strike’ in fall 1965, the repeated attempts from beginning to end of 1965-66 to get Daily editor McFadden fired which was justified almost entirely on charges that he was a Communist not on his pro Quebec nationalist editorials, the mobilization to block student council sanctioning of the UGEQ led march against the Vietnam war in fall 1965, the efforts of Aberman to get McGill to withdraw from CUS because it took left-leaning stands on social and political issues, the firing of Gage in fall 1966 for publishing an article that criticized a faculty member for doing research supporting the US war effort, McCoubrey’s offer to provide scabs during the Catholic teacher union strike etc.
The seeds of the modern justice system were sown by Henry II (1154-1189), who established a jury of 12 local knights to settle disputes over the ownership of land. When Henry came to the throne, there were just 18 judges in the country – compared to more than 40,000 today. The case of Cox highlights the extent to which the use of social media can interfere with the administration of justice and the need to take appropriate action. Prosecutors should refer to the Criminal Practice Directions (CPD I General matters 6C. This clarifies the use which may be made of live text-based communications, such as mobile email, social media (including Twitter) and internet-enabled laptops in and from courts). The decisive distinction between socialist and communist, as in one sense these terms are now ordinarily used, came with the renaming, in 1918, of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) as the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). From that time on, a distinction of socialist from communist, often with supporting definitions such as social democrat or democratic socialist, became widely current, although it is significant that all communist parties, in line with earlier usage, continued to describe themselves as socialist and dedicated to socialism. Court reporter – A person who transcribes by shorthand or stenographically takes down testimony during court proceedings, a deposition, or other trial-related proceeding. The borderline between public law and private law is not always clear. Law as a whole cannot neatly be divided into “law for the State” and “law for everyone else”. As such, the distinction between public and private law is largely functional rather than factual, classifying laws according to which domain the activities, participants, and principle concerns involved best fit into. 2 This has given rise to attempts to establish a theoretical understanding for the basis of public law. First, democracies will not go to war against the United States, provided, of course, that the United States remains a democracy. The logic of the democratic peace suggests that the United States will have fewer enemies in a world of more democracies. If democracies virtually never go to war with one another, no democracy will wage war against the United States. Democracies are unlikely to get into crises or militarized disputes with the United States. Promoting democracy may usher in a more peaceful world; it also will enhance the national security of the United States by eliminating potential military threats. The United States would be more secure if Russia, China, and at least some countries in the Arab and Islamic worlds became stable democracies.
In Botswana, the people vote directly for their representatives in the National Assembly every five years, which is a 40-seat national legislative body. Currently, the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) holds 33 seats; the Botswana National Front (BNF), six seats; and the Botswana Congress Party (BCP) has one seat in the National Assembly. People appointed by the president hold an additional four seats in the National Assembly that are currently held by the BDP. The number of seats in the National Assembly can be expanded as representative districts may grow, as shown by a census that is done every 10 years. S. Gray, Criminal Laws Northern Territory, Federation Press, Annandale, NSW, 2004. Call number R 345.9429 GRA. Includes Chapter 2: History of Northern Territory criminal law. Little by little, the socialist minority had evolved into a majority at the PS national congress held in Paris between 6-10 October 1918; thus, towards the end of the war the former relations had been inverted. In summarising the breaches in the International that had taken place through the shock of the war, together with the remoulding of the labour movement just before the congress of October 1918, one finds that French socialism was at this point divided into four sections: a right-wing section demanding that Germany be crushed; a centrist section embracing the Wilsonian perspective; another minor centrist section, and the left-wing Zimmerwaldians. Some historians blame the failure of democracy on individuals. The moderate chancellors were ineffective leaders who constantly rose and fell as party coalitions gained or lost strength in the Reichstag. President Hindenburg doubted democracy and dreamed of restoring the kaiser to power. Extremists like Hitler hated democracy. Most people and consumers believe this sector to be a retail endeavor, yet that is not really so. In fact the biggest income generator is the catalog and Internet sales to Corporations and it is know that businesses which have 20 or more employees spend $200 per year in office supplies. Are you shocked by that high number; well you should not be if you are in a small business for yourself and post all your office supplies receipts into Quick Books and fill out your Schedule C tax return. Small Businesses often spend even more. catwoman89: When I first began this series of Hubs about Obama’s Marxism almost half a year ago, many comments were similar to yours, Ralph’s, etc. All I can say now is that you can open any newspaper, news site, or tv news program and see how Americans everywhere are starting to wake up to the clear and present danger that a Marxist in the White (soon to be Red) House poses. Your semantic obfuscation aside, apply the logic you boast, and you will realize like many others the reality of this Marxist nightmare American voters have created.