Nearly all the countries of the world today have come under some sort of democratic structure. Recusal – The voluntary action by a judge to remove himself or herself from presiding in a given case because of self-interest, bias, conflict, or prejudice. Also, the process by which a judge is disqualified from a case because a party objects. The validity of laws and other acts of the state, the autonomous regions, local government and any other public entities is dependent on their conformity with the Constitution. By 1961 the socialist sector produced 90% of East Germany’s agricultural products. However, the annual industrial growth rate was declining steadily after 1959. To help this cause, the Soviet Union recommended that East Germany implement the reforms of economist Evsei Liberman. In 1963 Liberman’s theories of the New Economic System (NES) were adapted and introduced. The NES was aimed at creating an efficient economic system and transforming East Germany into a leading industrial nation. 1. In appellate cases, a group of judges (usually three) assigned to decide the case; 2. In the jury selection process, the group of potential jurors; 3. The list of attorneys who are both available and qualified to serve as court-appointed counsel for criminal defendants who cannot afford their own counsel. Totalitarian – a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters, but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population. The rule of law begins with the right of individuals to seek protection through the courts in which justice is administered by unbiased judges. It protects the freedom of individuals to manage their affairs without fear of arbitrary interference by the Government or the improper influence from the rich and powerful. The Basic Law of the HKSAR was enacted by the National People’s Congress in accordance with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. It is similar to a mini-constitution for the HKSAR. It took effect on 1 July 1997 on the establishment of the HKSAR. The most prominent feature of the Basic Law is the underlying principle of “one country, two systems” whereby the socialist system and policies shall not be practised in the HKSAR and the previous capitalist system and way of life is to remain unchanged for 50 years. A court order that allows a creditor who is owed money to take the property of the debtor (the person who owes the money) that is held by a third partyâ€”typically this means the wages of a debtor that an employer holds. After several piecemeal laws addressed trade unions , a more comprehensiveâ€”though controversialâ€” Industrial Relations Act was passed in 1971, requiring registration of unions and arbitration of disputes. Although the system established by this statute fell into political disfavour following several bitter trade disputes in the 1970s, it paved the way for the greater regulation introduced in the 1980s. From the 1990s, a series of comprehensive measures, including the Employment Rights Act (ERA) of 1996, have created a large degree of protection for employees.
Alford Doctrine: A plea in a criminal case in which the defendant does not admit guilt, but agrees that the state has enough evidence against him or her to get a conviction. Allows the defendant to enter into a plea bargain with the state. If the judge accepts the Alford Plea, a guilty finding is made on the record. Frenchman Jean Eugene Robert-Houdin was one of the most fabled illusionists of all-time. If you think his name sounds familiar that could very well be due to the fact that a certain aspiring escape artist from Budapest named Erik Weisz so idolized the man that he adopted the stage name of Harry Houdini. Napoleon III in 1856 impressed by the magical illusions he had seen, summoned Robert-Houdin and asked him to go to French Algeria in an attempt to serve his country by stopping a potential revolution using some of his fantastic magic tricks. It seems that there were some troublemaking Marabouts (a hermit or holy man, often claiming to wield supernatural powers) in Algeria who claimed to be “wizards,” and who used spectacular displays of magical theatrics to influence the general population. It was right around this time that Napoleon III sensing that the people of Algeria were both about to revolt but at the same time were easily distracted by theatrics, decided to fight fire with fire. According to his own memoirs, Robert-Houdin was dispatched to Algeria to put on a series of performances, and it was made sure that the very Marabouts contemplating revolution would be in attendance to see this great “French wizard” and perhaps reconsider their position. America has never been a democracy but a republic. Pretty big difference. The kiddies in Congress are having too much fun in Fantasyland, spending money that doesn’t exist to create a wishful-thinking health care system that will cover everyone at the lowest common denominator. It’s time for the adults to exercise their democratic rights and send the kiddies home. 2.6 While there are important differences between these theories, a common theme is evident: crime is something more than a wrong done or a harm caused to an individualâ€”it has a public or communal element. Crime profoundly affects individual victims, but also has broader adverse impacts for society generally. A crime committed against one individual can lead to fear, concern and apprehension in the general community. Putin recognizes that only The State has the authority to wield power to protect the national interest, play referee when financial markets convulse, and ensure that a nation’s infrastructure, its culture, its people and its security come first. After all, those are the critical components of The State. It is vital that, as much as possible, The State should attempt to remain unincorporated. We have rid the country of the harmful practice that saw state decisions taken under pressure from commodities and financial monopolies, media magnates, foreign political circles and shameless populists, a practice that was not only detrimental to our national interests but that cynically ignored the basic needs of millions of people,â€ said Putin.
Other special courts include military courts, maritime courts and railway courts. The military court, established within the People’s Liberation Army, is the relatively closed adjudication institution in charge of hearing criminal cases involving servicemen. The maritime courts are located at the major sea and river port cities. They have jurisdiction over maritime cases and maritime trade cases of first instance. It ranks equivalent to an intermediate court in the judiciary hierarchy. The railway transport court deals with criminal cases and economic disputes relating to railway and transportation. Wow! Anywhere. Literally, anywhere. There IS no place where you cannot have a farm if you own the land or water or airspace. I have done a lens on urban agriculture, Guide to Urban Agriculture, so I know what I am talking about. There are companies that ranch fish out in the ocean. There are hanging gardens and one company plans to put up an airborne city like Stratos in that Star Trek episode “The Cloud Minders.” Not quite anti-gravity or Avatar’s floating islands but plain old helium. Hydroponics can be done in space and there is an entire organization, The Mars Society, that wants to green Mars. I have lenses that feature terraforming (Green Space and Guide to Space Suburbanization) and terraforming in turn makes it possible to farm on any planet, moon or large enough asteroid. So where would a hippie have a farm? Wherever they can get land or water or air or space. But if you prefer a more boring answer, then use your backyard in a suburb or buy a farm out in the rural country at a tax sale or foreclosure sale. In deserts, water is a challenge but Native Americans have farmed there for millennia and continue to successfully farm in the desert. One place I would avoid: arctic regions that if climate change is reversed, will return to tundra. a decision making body like a court, that hears evidence and makes decisions based on facts and law. A Tribunal usually specializes in a particular area of law, is usually less formal than court, and instead of a Judge, the decision maker at a Tribunal is an Adjudicator. It is therefore my contention without any doubt and fear to declare that Obama is the best thing that has happened to America and theWorld. The saddest thing to watch is how the world accepts and loves Obama, and the most cruel and eye=opening one is to see how many White Americans hate, loathe and dismiss him as not their President. Construction: Legal process of interpreting a phrase or document. If a term is unclear or ambiguous, lawyers and judges must try and interpret (or construct) its probable intention and purpose. This may be done by referring to other parts of the document, by reference to the known intentions of those who drew up the document, or, in the case of statutes, by referring to an interpretation law which gives guidelines for construction.
Tourism was a big industry in that neighborhood going back to the 1800’s it was a popular vacation destination for urban Jews. When the Eden Springs Park first opened there were still numerous boarding houses within walking distance the catered to Jewish tourists and many of them also spent a lot of time in the park and ate their meals in the vegetarian restaurant there. In later years the City of David also catered to a primarily Jewish tourist clientele with kosher food, a synagogue and the kosher hospital. Charles James- Thank you for coming to visit and for adding to our conversation. Surely, Capitalism requires some basic regulation, of the kind where long term Rule of Law is spelled out for such a period of time as to where it cannot be predicted whom the Law will benefit. This is Blind Justice. Without it, the Government gets into the business of choosing ends when its activities should be restrained to means. I am going to write more about this in a few days. I really am tired of your clichÃ©d and insulting talking down. I know precisely what Nationalist Socialists were and what they did. And, they were VERY “progressive” in that they implemented a huge part of what socialists want. The Secretary for Justice of the HKSAR Government has overall responsibility for conducting criminal prosecutions in Hong Kong. It is for the Secretary and those who prosecute on the Secretary’s behalf to decide whether or not a prosecution should be instituted in any particular case. In determining whether or not to prosecute, the Secretary considers two issues: First, is the evidence sufficient to justify the institution of proceedings? Second, if it is, does the public interest require a prosecution to take place? In making that decision the Secretary for Justice is not subject to any instructions or directions from Government Executive bodies. While the notion of democracy finds its roots in Greek antiquity, its practice became the particular province of settlers in the colonies of the United States. In the years leading up to the U.S. War for Independence, the philosophical impetus of governance through representation played an important role in building the case for revolt. It was also essential, as the framers of the Constitution constructed a way of life around a concept called representative democracy.â€ The colonists imported the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequalities of their European predecessors. But in representative democracy and the Constitution, they also forged a framework for the marginalized to fight for their representation. Today, just over half of the world’s nations self-identify as constitutional democracies.
Leslie McCowen ~ Preaching what you don’t practice is exactly what you are doing. Every day trotting out the Bible on people even though you do not believe it is the truth and you do not practice its precepts or believe them valid. The only person I have seen expressing hate here is you. I certainly don’t hate anybody. Your Socialism is a Hate Crime. It only enslaved one billion innocent people and killed 100 million. Not much could be more hateful than that, Beelzebub. Monarchy – a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a sovereign – such as a king, queen, or prince – with constitutionally limited authority. Andrei Novac is Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California at Irvine, School of Medicine, and Founding Director of the Traumatic Stress Program. He is the author of the research papers Traumatic Stress and Human Behavior , Special Treatment Issues in Children of Holocaust Survivors and Free Artistic Expression: A Clinical Exploration of Resiliency and Healing After Trauma. 2.44 Children and young people also experience special difficulties in the criminal justice system, by reason of their age and related vulnerability. This court has been instituted by the Restitution of Land Rights Act, (Act 22 of 1994). The function of the court is to restore land rights to people who have been dispossessed of such rights in terms of racial discrimination after 19 June 1913. The court can, amongst others, restore the original or alternative state land or award compensation. Usually such a case is first dealt with by a Commission on Restitution of Land Rights. If the Commission cannot settle the claim, it is referred to the land claims court. The court consists of a president and additional judges as members. in a legal proceeding a person or organization or government named in a legal proceeding, who is either bringing or defending the legal claim. To accomplish these aims, The Progressive Movement believes in State Ownership of Businessesâ€”instead of Entrepreneurial Free Enterprise; Central Planning by the Government of the supply of goods and services, including fixing prices of wages, and of goods and servicesâ€”instead of Free Market Capitalism; That all Citizens should have equal wealth except for the Elite Rulers; And that Sovereignty does not belong to Individual Citizensâ€”but that the People only exist for the benefit of the National State.