A crime is anything that is illegal. Although the constitution makers expected the Chancellor to be the head of government, they included emergency provisions that would ultimately undermine the Republic. Gustav Stresemann was briefly Chancellor in 1923 and for six years foreign minister and close advisor to Chancellors. The constitution gave emergency powers to the directly elected President and made him the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. In times of crisis, these presidential powers would prove decisive. During the stable periods, Weimar Chancellors formed legislative majorities based on coalitions primarily of the Social Democrats, the Democratic Party, and the Catholic Center Party, all moderate parties that supported the Republic. However, as the economic situation deteriorated in 1930, and many disillusioned voters turned to extremist parties, the Republic’s supporters could no longer command a majority. German democracy could no longer function as its creators had hoped. Ironically by 1932, Adolf Hitler, a dedicated foe of the Weimar Republic, was the only political leader capable of commanding a legislative majority. On January 30, 1933, an aged President von Hindenburg reluctantly named Hitler Chancellor of the Republic. Using his legislative majority and the support of Hindenburg’s emergency presidential powers, Hitler proceeded to destroy the Weimar Republic. AMY GOODMAN: The government shutdown comes as Republicans and Democrats face a nearing deadline to increase the nation’s borrowing limit or risk a default on US debts. Republicans had previously threatened to tie their bid for an Obamacare repeal to the debt ceiling vote. Despite the government shutdown, a key initiative of Obamacare begins today. Individuals seeking health insurance under the new program can now enroll online through marketplaces. As a libertarian minarchist, I recognize that some people are just such bad bastards that ‘in order to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men.’ Where I draw the line is, as do most people who are real libertarians, is the initiation of force. Once force is initiated, whether one-on-one, by proxy, or by threat, force is an appropriate response. Though North Korea identifies itself as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, this is truly the clearest example of a totalitarian dictatorship in the modern world. Kim Jong-un rules with singular and unchallenged authority, commanding over his public without political opposition. With absolute control over the state-run media, an enormous military apparatus at his disposal, and an endless cycle of propaganda and misinformation helping to sustain his power, Kim Jong-un rules his state in a vacuum from world affairs. Criticism of the supreme leader or protest of his policies is a crime punishable by death, as are countless other crimes for which due process is not required. North Korea’s propensity toward human rights violations is said to be unparalleled in the modern world.
The 14th century saw members of the judiciary still involved in politics to some extent – for example, for ten years, Edward III’s Chancellors were common-law judges. 30 Tyrone Kirchengast, The Victim in Criminal Law and Justice (Palgrave MacMillan, 2006) 58-9; Gregory Durston, ‘The Inquisitorial Ancestry of the Common Law Criminal Trial and the Consequences of its Transformation in the 18th Century’ (1996) 5 Griffith Law Review 177, 181. It was not until 1830 that there was any change to the nearly 300-year-old assize courts. By the Law Terms Act of that year, the Court of Great Sessions was abolished and the Welsh counties and Chester were brought into the general circuit system. Shortly afterwards, the new Central Criminal Court was set up, unifying the administration of justice in London and surrounding areas. The Council of Canadians reports, refugees are targeted with Bill C-31 which strays from the rule of law blatantly violates the U.N Convention and other international rights besides the cuts to basic and emergency health care which is cruel and inhumane. Furthermore, it reports betrayal to the First Nations in abandonment of the Kelowna Accord and reconciliation efforts, dismantling of the CSIS Inspector General and the Military Police Complaints Commission. Canada opposed the UN Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the General Assembly Resolution on Human Right to Water and Sanitation and refused to sponsor controls on executions. Lastly equipment and supplies need to have a storage place as well as proper safety supplies will ensure that you are able to complete each trash out clean out service effectively for asset management. Lawyers still represent the interests of their clients in civil proceedings, but have a less central role. As in common law systems, however, their tasks commonly include advising clients on points of law and preparing legal pleadings for filing with the court. But the importance of oral argument, in-court presentations and active lawyering in court are diminished when compared to a common law system. In addition, non-litigation legal tasks, such as will preparation and contract drafting, may be left to quasi-legal professionals who serve businesses and private individuals, and who may not have a post-university legal education or be licensed to practice before courts. Since 1978, the government has departed significantly from its focus on class status, and replaced it with a qualified presumption of equality. The principle of legal equality is enshrined in basic laws such as the Economic Contract Law (1982), which provides that contracting parties enjoy equal rights, the General Principles of Civil Law (1987), which ascribes various rights universally to all natural persons, and the Administrative Litigation Law (1989), which allows any citizen to file suit against administrative agencies. However, the doctrine does not extend to the right of labour to engage in collective bargaining or strike action.
The Crown Court is a superior court of record (s 45(1) of the Senior Courts Act 1981) but its inherent power to make an order of committal of its own motion is restricted. It can deal with contempt “in the face of the court”, which has been interpreted broadly and is not confined to contempt seen by the judge; disobedience of a court order, or breach of an undertaking to the court (DPP v Channel Four Television Co. Ltd. 1993 2 All E.R 517). Socialism is when the government runs the people. State legislatures have the exclusive and inherent power to pass a law prohibiting and punishing any act, provided that the law does not contravene the provisions of the U.S. or state constitution. When classifying conduct as criminal, state legislatures must ensure that the classification bears some reasonable relation to the welfare and safety of society. Municipalities may make designated behavior illegal insofar as the power to do so has been delegated to them by the state legislature. With the end of the Cold War came the emergence of the New World Order, a world in which there was only one global power: the United States. I was born shortly before the Berlin Wall came down, and I developed a memory only after the Soviet Union collapsed; the only world I know is the one in which the United States has been the only global power. I know only the era of ‘globalization’ and the promises it made my generation. Think of the effect upon the youth this great period of transition will have. Huge bureaucracies, sometimes outside even the control of democracy or politics, interfere with the processes of production and distribution. Private industry and trade are slowly being conquered by the state, leading to Socialism. But it isn’t called that dirty word in America. They now call it Liberalism. the party (person or organization) who brings a complaint to court and begins a non-criminal legal proceeding. While much of the oath is merely a recitation of the requirements laid out in the professional responsibility section of the Law on Lawyers, it also uses ‘socialist’ or ‘socialism’ three times. It is quite clear that the oath serves as a reminder of the purpose of the law – to support the party’s control. It specifically defines a lawyer’s role as to ‘uphold the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the socialist system’. It is understandable, then, how difficult it must be for human rights lawyers to attempt to hold the party or the state responsible for some kind of violation when they must also ensure that their defense is not a direct accusation against the party and the state.