Before I commence this page of outstanding information, I want to emphasise that this page is for information intentions solely. This service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. Eight Hour Day 2006 marks the 150th anniversary of the Eight Hour Day in Victoria. Action taken by stonemasons on 21 April 1856 led to the establishment and maintenance of the Eight Hour Day, recognised internationally as a world first. The website contains news and announcements of a series of events to mark the anniversary, a history of the eight hours day, fact sheets and other resources. Party – A person, business, organization or government agency involved in the prosecution or defense of a legal proceeding. Even in the USA you do not have unrestricted capitalism. The reason it is not unrestricted is because capitalists have proved they cannot be trusted. The democracy in which you operate has had to regulate some aspects of capitalism. There are laws about pollution, about product liability, Glass Steigal (repealed but likely to come back again), discrimination by gender or race, and freedom of speech. Admissible Evidence – Evidence that can be legally and properly introduced in a civil or criminal trial. The Supreme Court of Victoria is the highest court in Victoria and deals with serious criminal cases and complex civil cases. Commonwealth Crimes Act passed containing the most serious offences against the Commonwealth (eg treason) which carried the death penalty or committed by Commonwealth officers (eg divulging official secrets). It has been gradually superseded by the Criminal Code Act 1995. Summary Judgment – A decision made on the basis of statements and evidence presented for the record without a trial. It is used when there is no dispute as to the material facts of the case, and one party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. It is also designed for the national planning of the political agenda and economic services provided to the people. The central control of administration exercises the uniformed social development planning as to the national development programs of the state. syndicalism sÄ­n´dÄ­kÉ™lÄ­zÉ™m key , political and economic doctrine that advocates control of the means and processes of production by organized bodies of workers. Like anarchists, syndicalists believe that any form of state is an instrument of oppression and that the state should be abolished. Viewing the trade union as the essential unit of production, they believe that it should be the basic organizational unit of society. To achieve their aims, syndicalists advocate direct industrial action, e.g., the general strike , sabotage , slowdowns, and other means of disrupting the existing system of production. They eschew political action as both corruptive and self-defeating. The writings of Pierre Joseph Proudhon , with his attacks on property, and of Georges Sorel , who espoused violence, have influenced syndicalist doctrine. Syndicalism, like anarchism , has flourished largely in Latin countries, especially in France, where trade unionism was for years strongly influenced by syndicalist programs. Syndicalism began a steady decline after World War I as a result of competition from Communist unions, government suppression, and internal splits between the revolutionary anarcho-syndicalists and moderate reformers. In the United States the chief organization of the syndicalist type was the Industrial Workers of the World , which flourished early in the 20th cent. but was virtually extinguished after World War I.

The causes of Yugoslavia’s breakup are clearly much more complex and have to be viewed in the context of various international and national events of those times. On the international scene, the radical changes in parts of Eastern Europe towards multiparty democracies and market economies, the end of the cold war, the disintegration of the USSR and the dismantling of the CMEA were unprecedented events of such historical importance that the political crisis in Yugoslavia seemed a secondary minor issue; thus the active involvement of the European Union offering major support to Yugoslavia in order to try and prevent its break-up came much too late. I know the ‘text book’ definition of socialism. Perhaps our disagreement over unions being a socialist tool reflects where I was born and raised. I am Canadian (yeah, that’s a commercial) in Canada unions are big supporters of hard line socialists in the New Democratic Party of Canada – the only truly socialist party in Canadian politics, although all other parties have aspects of socialism in their ideology. Yep, when corresponding with American’s (who merge Socialism in with Communism) it’s a topic that is close to my heart. But when conversing with British people it’s not so important because Brits have a better understanding of the distinction between Socialism and Communism, to a point where we don’t even have to say ‘Democratic Socialist’, saying Socialist will suffice, as to distinguish from Communism. Availability of Parts & Consumables – Decide whether you prefer OEM certified parts and new consumables versus refurbished parts and consumables. The pros and cons for each need to be considered. Are the new or refurbished parts and consumables readily available at prices that fall within your maintenance budget? It’s important to review the language concerning parts and consumables in the service contract or interview possible time & material vendors who can perform the required maintenance on the office equipment being considered. However, in contrast to other civil law jurisdictions, the PRC has not yet consolidated its civil law into a single code, and the civil law of the PRC has developed in such a way that leads to a large amount of confusion and contradiction within the legal code. With China’s booming economy, a new, more affluent class is emerging, the property of which is in urgent need of legal protection. As an advocate, a lawyer acts for the client in court. A lawyer also advocates on behalf of clients in resolving disputes out of court.

UGEQ had reorganized their student associations around two axes: service to the members and service to the nation”. Rabinovitch recognized that English-Canadian students at McGill did not necessarily share the same enthusiasm about the Quebec Quiet Revolution” and the building of a new modernized nation. Nevertheless, the McGill student society is following a unique path but achieving the same effect”. McGill’s different motives were the desire to improve the techniques of student government” to make it more professional, a concern with educational issues and the influence of student action all over the world (McGill has many foreign students)” (650514p7). Note the differences here with the approach of francophone UGEQers – improving the local student government not just joining a province wide student union, concern with on-campus quality and process of education issues not just building a new Quebec education system, drawing on other examples of student movements such as Berkeley and SNCC and SDS in the USA and CUS in English Canada. Francophone students were said to be primarily concerned with creating a new education system to achieve massive upward mobility for a generation committed to building a new secularized and modernized Quebec nation. Anglophone students already had all that in the Canadian nation. Their most pressing interest was in the liberalization of their own university while actively supporting francophone efforts to ‘catch up’. Even though Crown Courts hear only a small proportion of the criminal cases that are brought every year (about 30,000 cases), the jury forms a fundamental part of our legal system. The role of the jury is to decide whether the defendant is innocent or guilty based on the facts presented to them, playing a vital role in making sure the criminal justice system works for the benefit of the public. The idea behind the jury system is that everyone has a right to be tried by their peers. Super PACs are not a Republican problem, they aren’t a Democratic problem, they are an American problem. Vladamir Putin’s post-Soviet Russia is a clear example of kleptocratic behavior by a ruling class. In the early 1990s, as the former Soviet Union collapsed and confusion reigned, Putin and his allies from within the leadership of the KGB squirreled away billions of dollars in public money. They would ultimately use this money to fund a rise to power and, subsequently, the establishment of a quasi-authoritative regime that handed central banking authority over to cronies, awarded friends with enormous no-bid contracts to build the notoriously shoddy Sochi Olympic Village, and, in 2003, took control of a privately owned oil company. In the latter case, Putin demonstrated his absolute power by claiming fraud against oil magnate Mikhail Khodorkovsky. The charges led to the billionaire’s imprisonment for a decade and parceling of his Yukos Oil Company to Putin’s friends and allies. In spite of its democratic facade, Putin’s Russia meets the basic qualifications of a true kleptocracy.

Occasio: Digital Social History Archive at the International Institute of Social History is a collection of Internet documents concerning social, political and environmental issues, for the greater part available online. Witness – A person who testifies in court and swears to give truthful evidence about what he has seen, heard, or otherwise observed. Depending on your location, your attorney may need to have specialty certification in order to practice certain types of law. States like New Mexico , California, and Arizona have laws regarding specialty certification. You can’t assume that any lawyer will be able to help you; you might have to work with a specific type of lawyer. These firearms – truly pieces of American history – rightly belong in the hands of U.S. citizens. The CRRI aimed to develop a meeting place where socialists and syndicalists protesting against the war could cooperate. But they failed to reach this goal; no common activities took place and in the summer of 1916, the differences between the two sections of the committee were exposed. In the centre of the controversy was the question of what position to take regarding the international meetings organised by the Swiss and Italian socialists. Holders of non-law bachelor degrees can either complete the LLB course or pass the Common Professional Examination of England and Wales (CPE) before taking the Postgraduate Certificate in Laws. A will is a legal document containing instructions as to what should be done with a person’s money and property after their death. If a person does not leave a will, their estate is distributed according to statutory probate rules. Trusts are legal instruments which allow property to be held and dealt with by one person on behalf of another. Private client lawyers advise on all these matters and are involved in estate planning, the administration and distribution of the deceased’s estate to beneficiaries and any litigation relating to the estate. 4. If you are already on probation or parole for a previous offense, and you commit another crime, you will face additional legal sentences and penalties on top of the one you are currently serving. Many people are unaware how serious of an offense it is to violate probation or parole, especially by committing another crime. You can most certainly expect to be sentenced to jail time. Socialism is not bad. It is not like communism or fascism. Yes, the state does erode some freedoms for the good of all. Many countries are happy with it. The appeal for the people is that services are available to all and paid through higher taxes. For instance, in countries where there is universal healthcare, payroll taxes are hovering at 40-50% of wages for those services. Taxes on the rich are also WAY higher because they can afford to pay them. It appeals to those poor and middle incomers.