Grammar speaks of events occurring in three plains. In cases of civil law, the opinion of the jury may not have to be unanimous. Laws vary by state and country. Juries are present almost exclusively in criminal cases; virtually never involved in civil actions. Judges ensure law prevails over passion. It also made me reflect on all those lovely people from my youth – from my era – who have also lost their lives since those days in the eighties when we used to go clubbing together and had the best times growing up in the local post-punk and indie scene. This line of thought could render interesting sociological and philosophical insights around politics, ethics, space and time. Authors could consider what theoretical or methodological insights would aid in the development of our appreciation of prefigurative projects and larger theories of social, political and economic change. This Special Issue calls for a transdisciplinary approach, theoretical or empirical. People voting with their own dollars investing in a business they believe in to achieve later gains by perhaps getting lucky and getting in on the new floor of something wonderful and great – the potential opportunity of a life-time to invest in the start-up before everyone notices. It is this desire, dream, and opportunity which drives it. This is free market capitalism, and any gains made in such an investment – well, the credit shouldn’t go to socialism or used by socialists to proclaim that “socialism works” because in reality it doesn’t work – but again, crowdfunding isn’t socialism anyway. Just Cause – Sufficient reasons at law to permit employers to dismiss employees. For example, theft by an employee is usually just cause for dismissal. Just causeâ€ applies to other legal situations, in addition to the dismissal of an employee, such as wrongful conversion of propertyâ€ which is a taking without just causeâ€. It is important to note that in some states, stealing of any kind is considered a “crime of moral turpitude”. This means the act of stealing is not a favorable action in community standards of justice, honesty or good morals. Even if you are charged with a misdemeanor, you will have a permanent criminal record that will follow you for the rest of your life. This can have negative effects on the wrongdoer’s character personally, legally and with future employment opportunities. Lawyers are generally called legal practitioners and can be either solicitors or barristers. Both have to complete a law degree (Bachelor of Laws or Juris Doctor) and undertake either further studies or work placements before they can work as a legal practitioner – this is a formal requirement called being admitted to practice.
This service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. Eight Hour Day 2006 marks the 150th anniversary of the Eight Hour Day in Victoria. Action taken by stonemasons on 21 April 1856 led to the establishment and maintenance of the Eight Hour Day, recognised internationally as a world first. The website contains news and announcements of a series of events to mark the anniversary, a history of the eight hours day, fact sheets and other resources. Party – A person, business, organization or government agency involved in the prosecution or defense of a legal proceeding. Even in the USA you do not have unrestricted capitalism. The reason it is not unrestricted is because capitalists have proved they cannot be trusted. The democracy in which you operate has had to regulate some aspects of capitalism. There are laws about pollution, about product liability, Glass Steigal (repealed but likely to come back again), discrimination by gender or race, and freedom of speech. Admissible Evidence – Evidence that can be legally and properly introduced in a civil or criminal trial. The Supreme Court of Victoria is the highest court in Victoria and deals with serious criminal cases and complex civil cases. Commonwealth Crimes Act passed containing the most serious offences against the Commonwealth (eg treason) which carried the death penalty or committed by Commonwealth officers (eg divulging official secrets). It has been gradually superseded by the Criminal Code Act 1995. Summary Judgment – A decision made on the basis of statements and evidence presented for the record without a trial. It is used when there is no dispute as to the material facts of the case, and one party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. It is also designed for the national planning of the political agenda and economic services provided to the people. The central control of administration exercises the uniformed social development planning as to the national development programs of the state. syndicalism sÄnÂ´dÄkÉ™lÄzÉ™m key , political and economic doctrine that advocates control of the means and processes of production by organized bodies of workers. Like anarchists, syndicalists believe that any form of state is an instrument of oppression and that the state should be abolished. Viewing the trade union as the essential unit of production, they believe that it should be the basic organizational unit of society. To achieve their aims, syndicalists advocate direct industrial action, e.g., the general strike , sabotage , slowdowns, and other means of disrupting the existing system of production. They eschew political action as both corruptive and self-defeating. The writings of Pierre Joseph Proudhon , with his attacks on property, and of Georges Sorel , who espoused violence, have influenced syndicalist doctrine. Syndicalism, like anarchism , has flourished largely in Latin countries, especially in France, where trade unionism was for years strongly influenced by syndicalist programs. Syndicalism began a steady decline after World War I as a result of competition from Communist unions, government suppression, and internal splits between the revolutionary anarcho-syndicalists and moderate reformers. In the United States the chief organization of the syndicalist type was the Industrial Workers of the World , which flourished early in the 20th cent. but was virtually extinguished after World War I.
Our government seems to do a good job in fulfilling its limited powers as set forth in the Bible and the Constitution. The federal level provides a strong military, and the state and local governments provide law and order. However, besides being inefficient and not well-managed, our federal government consistently oversteps the boundaries defined by the Constitution and the Bible. It has expanded far beyond its appropriate role, always doing more than it’s legally permitted to do, and consequently burdening all of us with taxes that are far too high. When our state and local governments follow this pattern as well, the burden on the people is overwhelming. This is obvious when we consider the sheer size of our governmental bodies. It is estimated that our 90,000 government units (including cities, counties, etc.) employ some 20 million people with a payroll of over $600 billion, including some $150B for the payroll for the 3 million civilian employees at the federal level alone. Although these payrolls are only a small percentage of government spending, government employees do add much overhead to the tax burden. During the first phase of the global economic crisis in December of 2008, the IMF warned governments of the prospect of violent unrest on the streets.â€ The head of the IMF warned that, Violent protests could break out in countries worldwide if the financial system was not restructured to benefit everyone rather than a small elite.â€ Naturally, the IMF director leaves out the fact that he is part of that small elite and that the IMF functions for the benefit of that very same elite. There is virtually not an international economic or social-health comparator that SA has not sagged against. Nor is there a moral or ethical standard that we have not betrayed. Socialism’s advocates today promote it as a near-panacea. It’s a possible answer to the climate catastrophe,â€ writes a commentator in theÂ Guardian. It wouldÂ remedy the systemic deprivation of people of color,â€ says Connie M. Razza, director of policy and research at the think tank Demos. It would go far beyond political reform to reshape the basic structures that disempower people and keep them in wage slavery,â€ says Julia Salazar, a New York state senator and democratic socialist. 1.7.8 The District Courts and the MagistratesÂ´ Courts share the same powers over specific matters such as contractual or tortious claims for a debt, demand or damage and in actions for the recovery of monies. The jurisdictional monetary limits in civil matters for the MagistratesÂ´ Courts and District Courts are $60,000 and $250,000 respectively. The courts also differ in terms of criminal jurisdiction and sentencing powers. Under the Criminal Procedure Code (Cap 68, 2012 Rev Ed), the Magistrates’ Courts have the power to try any offence for which the maximum term of imprisonment provided by law does not exceed 5 years or which is punishable with a fine only. As for the Districts Courts, the stipulated maximum term of imprisonment is 10 years. A District Court may pass a sentence of imprisonment not exceeding 10 years; fine not exceeding $30,000; caning not exceeding 12 strokes; and any other lawful sentence. The sentencing powers of a Magistrates’ Courts are as follows: imprisonment not exceeding 3 years; fine not exceeding $10,000; caning not exceeding 6 strokes; and any other lawful sentence.
Prime Minister, Ministers and Members of Legislature and Members of Parliament must not allow confidentiality or gag orders or the party line to interfere with democracy, transparency and accountability to Canadians. Citizens have the power with – choice. They have the greatest role to play in the demand for equalities, civil liberties and a healthy quality of life for all. Reflect upon this disturbing history, the facts and the prominence of selective justice and governance. Revolutions do not require sticks and stones, but the â€˜courage’ to rally together to challenge unwelcome norms. Some should never be considered more equal than others in Canada. History counsels us to consider the first adjective in democratic socialistâ€ with some skepticism. â€¦the socialism that reduced the United Kingdom from world power to intermittently pre-industrial backwater in the post-war era was thoroughly democratic. â€¦In the United States, we use the word democraticâ€ as though it were a synonym for decentâ€ or accountable,â€but 51 percent of the people can wreck a country just as easily and as thoroughly as 10 percent of them. â€¦The problems of socialism are problems ofÂ socialism â€” problems related to the absence of markets, innovation, and free enterpriseâ€¦ Socialism and authoritarianism often go hand in hand (almost always, in fact), but socialism on its own, even when it is the result of democratic elections and genuinely democratic processes, is a bottomless well of misery. â€¦rights â€” property rights and the right to trade prominent among them â€” also find themselves on the wrong side of majorities, constantly and predictably. But they areâ€¦necessary for a thriving and prosperous society. Socialism destroys societies by gutting or diminishing those rights. Doing so with the blessing of 50 percent plus one of the population does not make that any less immoral or any less corrosive. The Bahamas and Sri Lanka established diplomatic ties in 2005 and maintain cordial relations. Both countries are member states of the United Nations (UN) and the Commonwealth and use these fora for the advancement of international affairs. All Germans had to be coerced into accepting the anti-individualist program of the National Socialists, who scared the populace with anti-Communist propaganda before driving them into a system that only differed from Communism in name. The Nazis gradually extended the field of state activity, until they had central control of the economy. The second type of democracy is a representative democracy (sometimes called indirect democracy). In this system of government, certain individuals are elected to represent the will of the people. These people, often referred to as elected officials, are chosen to vote on behalf of a specific group of citizens. These groups can be defined in many ways. Sometimes people are grouped by neighborhood, by city, by county, or even by province or state.