Disability is a term widely used for the social condition recognised as resulting from any type of physical or mental impairment mainly identified through medical procedures. Although political science borrows heavily from the other social sciences , it is distinguished from them by its focus on power —defined as the ability of one political actor to get another actor to do what it wants—at the international, national, and local levels. Political science is generally used in the singular, but in French and Spanish the plural (sciences politiques and ciencias políticas, respectively) is used, perhaps a reflection of the discipline’s eclectic nature. Although political science overlaps considerably with political philosophy , the two fields are distinct. Political philosophy is concerned primarily with political ideas and values, such as rights, justice , freedom, and political obligation (whether people should or should not obey political authority); it is normative in its approach (i.e., it is concerned with what ought to be rather than with what is) and rationalistic in its method. In contrast, political science studies institutions and behaviour, favours the descriptive over the normative, and develops theories or draws conclusions based on empirical observations, which are expressed in quantitative terms where possible. Commonwealth – a nation, state, or other political entity founded on law and united by a compact of the people for the common good. One of the best books I have read about the philosophical developments in constitutional and political thinking about the relationship between government and business. This should be a seminar coursebook, but it is also an engaging read for the general public. Essential reading on the hottest topic today. First, Chávez was famously charismatic — a once-in-a-generation kind of political charmer with an extraordinary ability to persuade people from all different backgrounds to join his cause. Having grown up as a poor child in the Venezuelan countryside, Chávez had an organic and intuitive connection with the poor and working-class citizens he came to champion. A savvy politician, he cobbled together a coalition of leftists, military officers, broad swaths of the middle class, and Venezuela’s long-neglected poor. Some states have preserved the status of common-law offenses for their criminal codes, while others have abolished common law and written most of the common-law principles into statutes. Some states are still using both common and statutory law. I further quoted, from the public record, that AOC says ALL Latinos on Earth have the RIGHT to come live in in America. AOC says immigration laws should not apply to the 550,000,000 Latinos who live south of our border. AOC is probably the most oft quoted Democrat in your party.
Double jeopardy – Putting a person on trial more than once for the exact same crime. It is forbidden by the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Because direct democracy can be unwieldy on the national level, there are few countries that use it as a primary governmental system. But that doesn’t mean direct democracy doesn’t exist anymore! Here are some examples of where you can see direct democracy in action. There are two main streams of law: civil law and criminal law. Mirroring developments in the role and independence of judges were changes to the avenues of redress open to aggrieved parties. The common law system was an improvement on what had gone before, but it was still slow, highly technical – making procedural mistakes that could ruin a case all too likely – and vulnerable to corruption, especially when juries were used. The criminal law provisions are either mandatory or prohibitory in character. Violations of mandatory provisions are usually in the form of omissions of what is legally mandated and expected from the person. The doing of something that the law prohibits constitute the commission of a criminal offense. An example of an omission in law is the legal obligation of parents to provide immediate assistance for their minor child under their custody in cases when the latter suffers from serious health emergencies. This parental care and support should be complied with in good faith by the parents of the minor and in case of omission whether by neglect or with willful intent, the parents shall borne the punishment provided by law for whatever that may happen to their child be it mere physical injuries or worst, death. Thus, an act of neglect by way of not performing the due diligence required by law from the parents for the protection of the life of a minor who died due to lack of proper care constitutes homicide. For the crimes of commission, certain acts are expressly prohibited by law such as the killing of another person save in some exempting and justifying circumstances that the law provides. Should anyone commit an act that results in the death of another person, the former shall suffer the punishments for either homicide, murder or man slaughter. Criminal laws are all statutory. But most of civil law has its origin in common law, albeit modified by various statutes. The rules of common law are not to be found in codes written by a single authority, but instead in the case law – that is, the body of decisions made in previous decisions by judges. The guiding principle of common law is the notion of precedent. This means that judges are, in general, expected to make rulings that follow the pattern established in previous, similar cases. When a new case arises whose resolution is not clearly dictated by existing precedents, the judge’s decision in the case becomes the precedent for future cases of a similar nature. In this way, the common law develops over time in response to the cases that appear before the courts.
Effectively, the FAO is after redistribution and control of the largest land holdings in this world by large corporate interests, or directly by governments. Surely that will be socialism at its finest and most effective – the socialism of our daily bread. Socialists want to break all ties to the past, getting rid of the traditions and customs of a people, to prepare the way for totalitarianism. These Socialists are sincere idealists and often men of considerable intellectual distinction. They are relativists, not believing in objective truth, who would make morality a function of politics. They would use media to mass-produce mass opinion. The socialist minority, in turn, did not want a separate peace with Germany to be signed and viewed the revolution rather as an opportunity to encourage activities in the international proletariat that could favour rapid reestablishment of peace. Killing or harming others, including humans and animals, is purposeful premeditation. For war, sport or illicit intention, people kill for individual and group reasons. Of these instigations, a multiplicity of factors are connected in the ideation of the people involved, although the carnality of the act is essentially of seductive and sensual purposes. There is no “single bullet theory” that absolutely and unequivocally explains a deterministic justification, or uncontrollable urge, for acts of violence. Damaging others, whether committing warfare, genocide, deprivation or killing a neighbor is an act of willful self-gratification, calculated with malice aforethought. Were the 31 who stayed in the Robertson office occupation in fact mostly Americans directly motivated by what was happening in the US? Were they in fact mostly previously not politically active liberals of the sort that later supported Eugene McCarthy and RFK in the USA? Were they more hippy-like than the rest of the McGill student left at this point in time? I am assuming the answer is yes to all these questions. Intolerance has become the norm, and attacks are piling up, that as we are heading towards mid-term elections, some are stressing that there needs to be reversal of the gains promulgated by Obama, and a restoration of archaic social relations which characterized pre-1930s America. Immigration has become an issue, and some states have or are in the process of passing anti-immigrant laws, and they are also beginning to fill the prisons which are empty. The Chinese Government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP); its role is to implement party policies. The primary organs of state power are the National People’s Congress (NPC), the President, and the State Council. Members of the State Council include Premier Zhu Rongji, a variable number of vice premiers (now four), five state councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), and 29 ministers and heads of State Council commissions.
Substantive due process protects certain rights from unreasonable government regulation. In contrast to procedural due process, which concerns the procedural rights guaranteed by the due process clauses, substantive due process is concerned with the substantive rights guaranteed by the clauses. The Supreme Court has determined that certain fundamental rights are part of the liberty rights guaranteed by the due process clauses. Therefore, if legislation invades these rights, the legislation may be unconstitutional. Examples of these rights include the right to travel, the right to privacy, the right to vote and First Amendment rights. But what we are witnessing in the case of the opposing Republican Party in the United States to all what Obama proposes, is that they have consistently and in an unreasonable and obstinate way have blocked everything or watered-down anything Obama has tried to implementin aid of the poor in the past three years. To date, they are still refusing to work with Obama to ease the misfortunes of unemployment and of poverty the masses of Americans are suffering and experiencing in contemporary America. American democratic socialist, writer, political activist, and political theorist, Michael Harrington (1928 – 1989), in Boston on Dec. 11, 1977. Sultanate – similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority. Gabriel A. Almond (1911 – 2002) – American political scientist. Since the late nineteenth century, the principal means of addressing the failure of laissez-faire capitalism to provide for the material needs of many members of modern industrial societies has been the welfare state. Insofar as the welfare state removes certain important goods and services—housing, health care, education, pensions, and so forth—from the unregulated play of private market forces and provides them to citizens free of charge or nearly so, it could be said to mix a measure of socialism with capitalism. This is the set of economic arrangements that falls under the catchall heading of social democracy. Every modern capitalist society has introduced a more-or-less substantial measure of social democracy into its economy. Some, like the Nordic states, are (despite some recent retreats) fairly robust social democracies. The United States is among the most anemic of contemporary social democracies. The immediate aim of Sanders and other contemporary American social democrats is to give the United States a substantial social democratic transfusion by enlarging its welfare state. Hence their current signature program: Medicare for All.